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6.Summarize Paivio’s research using mental clocks and the angles formed by the two clock hands. Do these findings support the analog position or the propositional position? Summarize the research findings on whether visual images interfere with visual perception and what this finding means.Consider, for example, another classic study on visual imagery. Allan Paivio (1978) askedparticipants to make judgments about the angle formed by the two hands on an imaginaryclock. For instance, try to visualize the two hands on a standard, nondigital clock. Next, create a visual image of the angle formed by the two hands if the time were 3:20. Now create a visual image of the angle between the two hands if the time were 7:25. Which of these two ‘‘mental clocks’’ has the smaller angle between the two hands? Paivio also gavethe participants several standardized tests to assess their visual- imagery ability. As you can see in Figure 7.2, the high-imagery participants made decisions much more quickly than the low-imagery participants. As Figure 7.2 also shows, participants in both groups made decisions very slowly when they compared the angle formed by the hands at 3:20 with the angle of the hands at 7:25. After all, these two angles are quite similar. In contrast, their decisions were relatively fast if the two angles were very different in size, perhaps 3:20 and 7:05. Paivio’s research asked participants to make judgments about the angle formed by the two hands on an imaginary clock. The studies findings suggested that people show the same pattern with their visual images. People were quicker at making decisions if the angles were quite different rather then similar. This study demonstrates strong support forthe proposal that people use analog codes, rather than propositional codes.Research has confirmed that visual imagery can interfere with your visual perception. Even after trying to think of a friends face and picture it in my mind at the same time scanning the page that I was reading, it was next to impossible to be able to complete a visual image while looking at a physical stimulus. Studies demonstrate that when two different sensory modes, for example, imagined sound and a visual stimulus, that the imagined sound had no impact on being able to report seeing the visual stimulus without a problem. However, people had more problems detecting the physical stimulus when themental image was in the same sensory mode, for example, a mental image would
interfere with a real visual stimulus because they are the same sensory mode as opposed to the imagined sound and the visual stimulus.