O what has caused the extent and pace of

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oWhat has caused the extent and pace of globalization to accelerate (over the last one or two centuries)?
Effects of Globalization:oWe just looked at the causes; what are the effects of globalization?oSociologists are very interested in globalization because it has great implications on social relationsEconomy, culture, politics, crimeoPolitics: political sociologists are very interested in the different effects of globalization on politicsCreates global power eliteGlobalization has an effect on who has powerMore concentrated power, elites have power throughout the worldAffects inequalityConcentrates more and more power in fewer hands (global power elite)But there can be alternative effects: more and more people can have diverse information, and this can help limit power inequality Affects gendered politicsMay be promoting greater gender equality in politics Affects media concentration and ability of the state to control itIncreasingly global media empires; increases centralization of the mediaGlobalization & Democracy: scholars say globalization promotes democracy in different waysoGlobal Institutions (+ powerful global actors): UN, World Bank, US, European UnionThese global actors are pushing democracyThey view democracy as desirable, so these institutions push governments to try to take on different elements of democracy oNorms: democratic norms (e.g. gender equality) have spread globally and caused people to demand democracy
These norms have spread from powerful countries, to less powerful countriesHow are these norms promoted? They are promoted by: Global institutions (above), colonialism, education, media, NGOs, etc.oEducation: the most successful educational institutes are in democracies; so people from around the world come to study at them (these schools promote the desirability of democracy)

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