Female Reproductive System study guide.docx

First period one experiences three years before cycle

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First period one experiences, three years before cycle becomes regular and all ovulatory 15. How does inhibin act to limit development of follicles? When inhibin is secreted by the granulosa cells of growing follicles and by corpus luteum, it inhibits the secretion of FSH and LH. Inhibin is what makes one follicle dominant over the other developing follicles. 16. Describe the stages of the uterine cycle and the hormonal control of each stage. Compare what is happening in the uterus to what is happening in the ovary during the same time frame. i. Progesterone and estrogens produced by corpus luteum promote growth of endometrium ii. Because of secretory activity of endometrial glands, this is the secretory phase of uterine cycle iii. Changes peak about 1 week after ovulation when a fertilized ovum might arrive in uterus iv. If fertilization does not occur, levels of progesterone and estrogens decline due to degeneration of corpus luteum v. Withdrawal of estrogens and progesterone causes menstruation Hormone interaction produces cyclic events in ovaries o Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) o Pituitary gonadotropins o Ovarian estrogen o Ovarian progesterone Onset of puberty linked to amount of adipose tissue via hormone leptin Ovarian cycle 1. GnRH release of FSH and LH 2. FSH and LH growth of several follicles, and hormone release 3. plasma estrogen levels inhibit release of FSH and LH Inhibin from granulosa cells also inhibits FSH release SEE ppt. slides 79, 80 or textbook for visual 17. What are the physiological effects of estrogen and progesterone. Estrogen Promote oogenesis and dollicle growth in ovary Exert anabolic effects on female reproductive tract Support rapid but short-lived growth spurt at puberty Increase muscle and bone mass Induce secondary sex characteristics Growth of breasts Increase deposits of subcutaneous fat (hips and breasts) Widening of lightening of pelvis Metabolic effects (not true secondary sex characteristics) maintain low total blood cholesterol and high HDL levels, facilitate calcium uptake Progesterone Progesterone works with estrogen to establish and regulate uterine cycle Promote changes in cervical mucus Effects of placental progesterone during pregnancy -inhibits uterine motility - helps prepare breasts for lactation
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