Classics-212-Mid-Term-Study-Guide.pdf

During tribunate of livius italians want citizenship

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during tribunate of Livius Drusus 91-88; Italians want citizenship and fighting breaks out between closely allied Italian cities and Rome; Rome wins but still grant Italians citizenship Lucius Cornelius Sulla - well-known military general given command of army against Mithridates; returns from Asia Minor and invades Rome in opposition to Rufus (1st and 2nd March on Rome); declares himself dictator, proscribes enemies which promotes violence among elites, and promotes anti-popular legislation Sulpicius Rufus - populist politician who wants to empower Italy by abolishing newly formed 8 tribes for voting and restore original tribes; Sulla invades Rome and defeats him Mithridates of Pontus - remembered as one of the Roman Republic ’s most formidable and successful enemies, who engaged three of the prominent generals from the late Roman Republic in the Mithridatic Wars. Eventually beaten by Pompey at Pontus. Spartacus - a gladiator turned escaped slave who became a leader in the slave uprising against the roman republic (Third Servile War 73 BC) Lucius Cornelius Cinna - After Sulla steps down and elections happen, he became the leading power in Rome through until his own death. Eventually he was driven out by Sulla’s allies because he supported populist reforms; but later forced his way back in. His main impact upon Roman politics was his ability to veil his tyranny and make it appear that he was working under a constitutional government. Gnaeus Pompeius (Pompey)- asked by Senate to serve as consul; finally defeats Mithridates at Pontus in 63 and is given the name “Magnus” (“the great one”) by the Senate; part of First Triumvirate through alliance with Julius Caesar (marries daughter Julia) then becomes sole consul in 55 when Crassus dies in battle in Syria; fights Caesar in civil war then retreats to Greece, then Egypt and is killed by Ptolemaic empire in 48 Gaius Licinius Crassus - part of First Triumvirate with Caesar and Pompey; later becomes consul with Pompey but dies while fighting in Syria. played a key role in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. Amassing an enormous fortune during his life, Crassus is (exempting Augustus Caesar) considered the wealthiest man in Roman history. Marcus Tullius Cicero- son of a slave who rose to political power and eventually consulship because of his oratory skills and well-known legal successes; exposes Catiline’s conspiracy to Senate and rouses opposition to him; model of Roman republican system in which oration and writing were influential Lucius Sergius Catilina (Catiline) - supposedly was leading a conspiracy against Cicero until Cicero exposes him to the Senate Gaius Julius Caesar - Part of first Triumvirate and then dictator of Rome. Played a large role in the demise of the Roman Republic and rise of Roman Empire. Once the Gallic wars ended, the Senate asked Caesar to step down as general and return to Rome as a private citizen. Refused to do so and returned with an army thus starting a civil war. He was triumphant and was declared dictator of war. Made a lot of
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