Oral, written, sworn, unsworn, signed, unsigned■Material fact that influences: relied vs favorable○Knowing or knowingly■Person having actual knowledge of information, acts in deliberateignorance of the truth of falsity of the information■No proof if specific intent to defraud required.●False Claims and statements○Falsified contractor qualifications○False Certifications or assurances○False records or invoices○Invoices from nonexistent companies○Claims made on duplicate or altered invoices○Billing fictitious employees○Billing for goods and services not provided○Inflated costs or substitution for cheaper productObstruction of Justice●What is it? Obstructing the administrative and due process of law (destruction, alteration,falsification of records, intimation, threats, bribery, withholding information)●Only necessary that the accused endeavored to obstruct justice●What are the techniques?○Delay Game■Refusal to voluntarily provide requested documents/legal battle○Over compliance■Drown government with documentation: Example: IBM 75 million pages○Outright threats and coercion■Usually state, local or “third world” countries●Example: environmental law and safety requirements○Spoliation of Evidence■Intentional vs. Negligent
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Political corruption,Business decision,Normal business practices,highly competitive industries,local agents customs,unfavorable government action