COMMON FACTORS APPROACH • Common factors can be the focal point for integration of seemingly diverse techniques. • Of the four pathways, this has the strongest empirical support. • Factors include: empathetic listening, support, warmth, developing a working alliance, opportunity for catharsis, practicing new behaviors, feedback, positive expectations for the clients, working through one’s own conflicts, understanding interpersonal and intrapersonal dynamics, change that occurs outside of the therapy office, client factors, therapist effects, and learning to be self- reflective about one’s work • The factor with the most confirmation and attention is the facilitative therapeutic relationship. #4.
ADVANTAGES OF PSYCHOTHERAPY INTEGRATION • Provides a general framework • Helps practitioners make sense of the many aspects of the therapeutic process • Can be flexibly tailored • Serves as a basis for practitioners to begin developing a theory that fits
THE CHALLENGE OF DEVELOPING AN INTEGRATIVE PERSPECTIVE • Beware of subscribing exclusively to any one view of human nature • Practitioner must remain knowledgeable of and open to all major theories • Be alert to the problem of attempting to mix/force theories • Service needs to be brief but also comprehensive, effective, and flexible • “The ability to assimilate techniques from varying theoretical perspectives takes knowledge, time, and finesse.” -Neukrug
INTEGRATION OF MULTICULTURAL ISSUES IN COUNSELING • Counselors should tailor interventions rather than forcing a theory to work • Counselors must remain knowledgeable of various cultures, including their own • Counselors need to be able to assess the special needs of the client • This approach is particularly well suited to considering cultural factors
I NTEGRA TI ON OF SPI RI TUA LITY A ND RELI GI ON I N COUNSELI NG Common goals Implications for assessment and treatment Your role as a counselor
COMMON GOALS • Spiritual values play a major role in human life and struggles • Exploring these values has the ability to provide solutions • Spiritual and therapeutic paths converge and integration is possible • Pursuing existential questions can foster healing
IMPLICATIONS FOR ASSESSMENT AND TREATMENT • The client’s background of involvement in religion is a art of the client’s history • Helpful in understanding clients’ worldviews, assisting clients finding the purpose of their lives and what they value most • This information helps the counselor choose the appropriate interventions • Could the clients’ spiritual or religious beliefs be exacerbating or helping the clients’ psychological problems?
YOUR ROLE AS A COUNSELOR • Create an inviting and safe climate • Listen how clients talk about existential concerns • Remain open to how clients express themselves • Monitor yourself for subtle ways you may be influencing the clients • Clients, not therapists, should determine specific values they want to retain, replace, modify.
ISSUES RELATED TO THERAPEUTIC PROCESS ● Therapeutic Goals ● Therapist’s Function and Role ● Client’s Experience in Therapy ● Relationship Between Therapist and Client
- Fall '19