Positioning methods that can be used attribute

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Positioning methods that can be used: Attribute positioning – product is associated with an attribute Benefit positioning – highlights consumer benefits Price and quality positioning – focuses on high price as a signal of quality or emphasises low price as an indication of value Use or application positioning Product user positioning – focuses on personality or type of user Product class positioning – museum = educational vs tourist attraction Competitor positioning – position against competitors Origin positioning – “German” engineered 24
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Study unit 15 – Customer loyalty Branding – security that adds value and profitability to the overall marketing effort. Brand – Name, term symbol or design or a combination of traits that help to identify the product. Product with personality. Unique character and appeal. Benefits / advantages of brands: o Convenience in shopping through easy identification and easy recognition of product o Facilitates the consumer decision-making process o Provides consumers with consistent quality o Simplifies the buying of replacement parts, service and accessories o Reduces perceived risk when established brands are purchased o Enables consumers to express their self-concepts Brand image is the sum total of a consumer’s attitudes to, and knowledge about, a brand. Brand preference is the consumers’ tendency to select a brand from among a set of known available brands. Brand preference behaviour = Knowledge-attitude-behaviour (KAB) Brand preference exists for 2 reasons: o One brand offers better value than others o Brand preference facilitates product choice and speeds up the shopping process. Factors that are vital in development of brand loyalty: o Exposure to info concerning the brand o Favourable experience in buying and using the brand o The extent of its use by peers and social reference groups Brand loyalty is lower when: o More brands are available for consumers to choose from o More products of greater value are bought o Prices are relatively active among competing brands o Consumers use a number of brands at the same time Brand loyalty is seen as a reflection of the degree of involvement the customer has in purchasing a product. Stages of brand loyalty: o Brand awareness – the customer becomes aware that the product of brand exists as a result of the promotional efforts of the organisation concerned. o Brand trial – the customer try out the product. Discounts or free samples may be given to persuade customers to try the product. o Brand image – the consumer’s impression of the brand created by brand messages and experiences. o Brand preference --- the customer now becomes familiar enough with a particular brand to select it from a set of known available brands.
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