Karl marx 1818 1883 economic determinism gap between

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- Karl Marx (1818-1883): Economic Determinism - Gap between the people at the bottom of society and the elite, between the powerless and the powerful, the dominated and the dominant. - Economic system of his day: Capitalism - Ruling Class: determined the prevailing ideas in society because they controlled the political system, religion, and media outlets. - Working class: accepted prevailing ideology. - False Consiousness - Social change occurs when the contradictions inherent in capitalism cause the working class to recognize their oppression and develop class consciousness , causing a revolt against the system. - Class Conflict is the engine of social change. - Marx Weber (1864-1920): A response to Marx - Weber’s thoughts is a reaction to the writings of Marx: “Marx was too narrowly deterministic.” - Basic structure of society [Not just economic] (1) Political (2) Economic (3) Cultural Spheres - Social class is not just economic resources, but also includes status (prestige) and power dimensions. - Political power is just not economic resources, but expressive qualities of a leader, charisma . - Power can also reside in organizations (not individuals) - The protestant belief system made capitalism possible. - Power, ideology, charisma, bureaucracy, and social change. Sociological Methods: The Craft of Sociology - Dependent on reliable data and log`` - Sociological Questions: Sociologist… [see page 13 for an example] - Try to ascertain the facts - May ask comparative questions - May ask is historical & trends - Theoretical - Problems in Collecting Data - Bane of the social sciences - objectivity. - Value neutrality can be attacked from three positions (1) Scientists should not be morally indifferent to the implications of their research. (2) Purely neutral position is impossible. (3) Types of problems researched and the strategies used tend either to support the existing societal arrangements or to undermine them. - In summary: (1) Bias is inevitable in the study and analysis of social problems. (2) People also gather data and make generalizations about social phenomena in a number of faulty ways. Sources of Data - Must obtain evidence that is beyond reproach - Four basic sources of data that yield valid results for sociologist: (1) Survey research
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- Systematic means of gathering data to obtain information about people’s behaviors, attitudes, and opinions. (2) Experiments - To assess the effects of social factors on human behavior. One of two similar groups - the experimental group - is exposed to an independent variable. If this group later differs from the control group, then the independent variable is known to have produced the effect. (3) Observations - Various social organizations such as prisons, hospitals, schools, churches, cults, families, communities, and corporations can be studied and understood through systematic observations.
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