Q10 to 12 is it possible to decrease inflation

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--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Q10 TO 12 Is it possible to decrease inflation without causing a reces- sion and its concomitant increase line in unemployment? The orthodox (5) answer is “no.” whether they support the “inertia” theory of inflation (that today’s inflation rate is caused by yesterday’s infla- tion, the state of the economic (10) cycle, and external influences such as import prices) or the “rational expectations” theory (that inflation is caused by workers’ and employers’ expec- (15) tations, coupled with a lack of credible monetary and fiscal policies), most economists agree that tight monetary and fiscal policies, which cause (20) recessions, are necessary to decelerate inflation. They point out that in the 1980’s, many European countries and the United States conquered high
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(25) (by these countries’ standards) inflation, but only by applying tight monetary and fiscal policies that sharply increased unemployment. Nevertheless, some govern- (30) ments’ policymakers insist that direct controls on wages and prices, without tight monetary and fiscal policies, can succeed in decreasing inflation. Unfortu- (35) nately, because this approach fails to deal with the underlying causes of inflation, wage and price controls eventually col- lapse, the hitherto-repressed (40) inflation resurfaces, and in the meantime, though the policy- makers succeed in avoiding a recession, a frozen structure of relative prices imposes distor- (45) tions that do damage to the economy’s prospects for long- term growth. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 10 The passage suggests that the high inflation in the United States and many European countries in the 1980’s differed from inflation elsewhere in which of the following ways? A. It fit the rational expectations theory of inflation but not the inertia theory of inflation. B. It was possible to control without causing a recession. C. It was easier to control in those countries by applying tight monetary and fiscal policies than it would have been elsewhere. D. It was not caused by workers’ and employers’ expectations. E. It would not necessarily be considered high elsewhere. Answer: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 11 Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen
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The author’s conclusion about the use of wage and price controls? --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 12 The primary purpose of the passage is to A. apply two conventional theories. B examine a generally accepted position C. support a controversial policy D. explain the underlying causes of a phenomenon E. propose an innovative solution ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 13 Vivien Thomas, who had no formal medical training, in struggling against overwhelming odds, he became a cardiac surgeon and eventually to receive an honorary doctorate from Johns Hopkins University. A. who had no formal medical training, in struggling against over whelming odds, he became B. Having had no formal medical training, in struggling against overwhelming odds to become C. Who, having no formal medical training, he struggled against overwhelming odds in becoming D. Who, having had no formal medical training and struggled against overwhelming odds, became E. Who had no formal medical training, struggled against overwhelming odds to
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become
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