This would also apply to pain management options such as morphine as the time

This would also apply to pain management options such

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shared and time to process the information. This would also apply to pain management options, such as morphine, as the time of death neared. Discussion of advance care planning and patient treatment preferences were not included in this study. Kehl (2014) states that this should be done prior to or during admission. However, continues to state that further studies on patient preferences to symptom management would be beneficial. Mayahara, M., Foreman, M. D., Wilbur, J., Paice, J. A., & Fogg, L. F. (2015). Effect of hospice nonprofessional caregiver barriers to pain management on adherence to analgesic administration recommendations and patient outcomes. Pain Management Nursing, 16 (3), 249-256. doi:10.1016/j.pmn.2014.07.001 The researchers goal was to understand the relationship of caregiver barriers and the effect of those barriers on patients. A longitudinal correlation study was used. The participants were caregiver-patient dyads and fifty-nine dyads participated. Surveys were sent out to
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Morphine and Hospice 6 determine caregiver barriers and patient outcomes where then measured including severity of pain, depression and quality of life. The highest mean score for barriers was the concern over the effects of pain management such as addiction. The study found that mean patient pain severity was high at 6.8 and depression as well at 10.3. Quality of life was moderate at 4.1. The researchers found a correlation between fatalism and pain severity and depression. On the contrary as caregiver adherence increased there was a decrease in the patient’s pain and an increase in the quality of life. This study is effective in providing this writer information regarding how family caregivers perceptions or misperceptions can affect patient outcomes. Noh, H., Guo, Y., Halli-Tierney, A., & Granda Anderson, K. (2016). Hospice staff perceptions of information needs among patients and families during admissions visits. The Gerontologist, 56 (Suppl_3), 431-431. doi:10.1093/geront/gnw162.1718 The goal of this study was to understand how hospice staff perceives the informational needs of patients and families. A total of sixteen hospice staff participated in the study. Data was collected through an open-ended interview and coded. The study found five informational needs. They included illness progression, changes in nutrition, hydration and medication, use of palliative medications, life-sustaining treatment and availability of the interdisciplinary team. The researchers concluded that patients and families lack understanding of treatments and comfort measures. While hospice staff are dedicated to patient and family education, they feel that this education should begin early in the disease process. It is also suggested that the process should be ongoing and repeated.
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Morphine and Hospice 7 This study is informative for this writer’s paper because it finds that many patients and families are “concerned for the use of pain medicine such as morphine, worrying about possibilities of addiction or hastening death (Noh, Guo, Halli-Tierney, & Granda Anderson, 2016).” The conclusion that education should begin early also confirms this writers view.
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