can occur and lead to genetic disorders that can work in concordance with Autism spectrum disorder adding to more impairment that may not just be intellectual, social, cognitive and behavioral but could also be physical. Research needs to continue in understanding which specific genes and other genetic type factors lead to the development of Autism Spectrum disorders in order to understand the disorder, create more affective treatments and prevent the increase in children in the future. In the subsequent chapter, the discussion on the environmental 24
GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS OF AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER influences to the development of Autism Spectrum disorder will further emphasize the influence of the environment with the support of previous genetic factors previously mentioned. 25
GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS OF AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER Chapter 4: Environmental Factors Recent evidence has emerged of the environment playing a large role in determining if a child will develop Autism Spectrum disorder. Previous to the past few years, Autism Spectrum disorder used to solely be based upon genetic factors leading to the development of the disorder such as genetic factors like genes and heritability. However, there are now more concerns based upon vaccinations and exposure to specific toxins in the environment contributes to the development of disorder. Though evidence is still acquiring on the environmental factors, research thus far has emphasized specific factors that can and have affected children in their cognitive development (Volk, Lurmann, Penfold, Hertz-Picciotto, & McConnell, 2013). Some of the specific factors in the environment that influenced the increase in the growing number of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders are Toxins such as alcohol and mercury, maternal influences, pollution and vaccinations (Shibata, Hitomi, Kambayashi, Hibino, Yamazaki, Mitoma, Hayashi, Otaki, Sagara, & Nakamura, 2013). Mercury is a growing concern with many researchers through the preservation of the substance. Since it is known that Mercury is no longer in current use in society and science, previous vaccinations containing mercury that are given maternally or to the child in early life can affect their brain development leading to the development of Autism therefore it is still considered as a concern to many parents. The number of Autism Spectrum Disorders is increasing significantly with an extreme influence of early exposure to environmental triggers. Low birth rate, parental age, multiple births and injections to the mother during pregnancy can affect a child in development of any kind but especially with Autism Spectrum disorders. The reason that this is said about the environmental factors leading to the development of Autism Spectrum disorders based upon these factors is because the exposure to the environmental during these critical points in life can 26
GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS OF AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER ultimately determine the magnitude of the disorder developing as a whole in a specific child.
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- Fall '13
- Psychology, Autism Spectrum Disorders