Sympathetic t1 l2l3 and parasympathetic cranial

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Sympathetic= T1 – L2/L3 and Parasympathetic = cranial nerves to S2/S4 Somatic NS vs. Autonomic NS o Somatic: (myelinated) – Ach Acetylecholine – Effector: Skeletal Muscle (Always Excitatory) From CNS Synapses directly with effector Consists of Afferent & Efferent Neurons Voluntary Control o Autonomic: Preganglionic (myelinated – Secretes Ach) Post ganglionic (NOT Myelinated) Effectors – Cardiac Muscle, Smooth Muscle of blood vessels and glands. 2 motor pathways- from CNS to synapse at Autonomic ganglion to 2 nd neuron Dual innervation from both: Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Involuntary control o Motor Pathways: The preganglionic (cell body in the brain or spinal cord) The postganglionic (cell body and dendrites located in an autonomic ganglion where it synapses with preganglionic axons)
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3 Sympathetic: (Fight –or-flight) Thoracolumbar (speeds things up) 1 neuron w/ full myelination Effects: Longer & widespread – Ganglia are found where the Pre meets the Post Motor Pathways: All Axons of Sympathetic Preganglionic neurons enter the sympathetic trunk ganglia via the White Rami Communicans; then they connect with postganglionic neurons in four ways: - Axon synapse w/ postganglionic neurons in first ganglion it reaches - Axon may ascend or descend to ganglion BEFORE synapsing w/ postganglionic neurons Postganglionic Neurons will exit via a gray rami and travel along a spinal nerve to innervate effectors: Skin, sweat glands, smooth muscle of blood vessels, and erector pilli muscles of the neck, trunk and limbs OR Postganglionic neurons will exit via sympathetic nerves to innervate effectors: Thoracic Cavity: heart & lungs Exception: Those that synapse at the Superior Cervical ganglia exit the sympathetic trunk and form the Cephalic Periarterial Nerves Skin, Sweat glands, smooth muscle of blood vessels, erector pilli muscles of the face as well as smooth muscles of the eye, lacrimal gland, pineal gland, nasal mucosa, and salivary glands. - Axon may continue, without synapsing, through the sympathetic trunk ganglion to form splanchnic nerves which synapse at prevertebral ganglia. Greater Splanchnic Nerve (T5-T9/10)- enters celiac ganglion Lesser Splanchnic Nerves (T10/11)- passes through celiac ganglion to the aorticorenal and the Superior Mesenteric Ganglia Lumbar Splanchnic Nerve (L1 – L4) – enters Inferior Mesenteric Ganglion Pelvic Splanchnic Nerve (S2-S4) – enters visceral walls of unrinary bladder, ureters, colon, and reproductive organs - Axon may also pass, without synapsing, through sympathetic trunk ganglion, along Greater Splanchnic Nerve and through the Celiac Ganglion to the Adrenal Medulla.
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4 Parasympathetic : (rest and digest) Craniosacral (Cranial nerves through S2-S4) (slows things down) Motor Pathways: Cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic neurons are located in nuclei in the brain stem and in the lateral gray matter of the 2nd through 4th sacral segments of the spinal cord.
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