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oCR (conditioned response) “spreads” to similar stimuliDogs moving to another location and thinking that maybe a school bell is the bell for their foodStimulus DiscriminationoOccurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus does not respond in the same way to new stimuli that are to the original stimulus.oCR is restricted to a specific stimuliDogs adjust and realize which bell is for their foodAcquisition – The initial stage of learning something; form a new CRExtinction – The gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency;banish a CRSpontaneous Recovery –The reappearance of an extinguished response after a period ofno exposure to the conditioned stimulus; CR reappears after extinction and non-exposureDrug Abuse and Sign Tracking-Physical and or psychological dependence on the drug.Operant Conditioning SkinneroIs a form of learning in which responses come to becontrolled by their consequences.oClassical conditioning regulated reflexive, involuntaryresponses, whereas operant conditioning governedvoluntary responses.
oReinforcement: occurs when an event following a response increases an organism’s tendency to make that response. (A response is strengthened because itleads to rewarding consequences.oDelayed reinforcementLearning at a slower paceoPrimary reinforcementEvents that are inherently reinforcing because they satisfy biological needs.Something reinforcing right from birth (Ex. Food, water)oSecondary reinforcement(Conditioned) are events that acquire reinforcing qualities by being associated with primary reinforces.Learned association from primary reinforces (Ex. Money, college degree)Skinner BoxoOr operant chamber: is a small enclosure in whichan animal can make a specific response that isrecorded while the consequences of the response aresystematically controlled.oShaping – rewarding successive approximations ofa desired behavior. (Giving a dog a treat when theylearn a trick) Consists of the reinforcement of closerand closer approximations of a desire responseoReinforcement contingencies: are thecircumstances or rules that determine whetherresponses lead to the presentation of reinforces.Skinners Contribution to WWII-used pigeons trackingbehavior. Sent targets location when the beak was touchedto the screen.Reinforcement schedulesoSpecific patterns thatdetermine when a behavior will be reinforced/ rewardedoSchedule of reinforcement: determines which occurrences of a specific response result in the presentation of reinforcement.oOnce an animal has learned a response, would continuousreward or intermittentcontinue to maintain someone’s behavior?