Cells use special molecules to carry electrons often

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• Cells use special molecules to carry electrons (often in H atoms). • This is potential energy, another way to transport energy. • Two important __________ __________ Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) add electrons & hydrogen NADH Flavine adenine dinucleotide (FAD) add electrons and hydrogen FADH 2 • Think of these energy carriers as rechargeable batteries. (When they have the electrons and hydrogens they are charged up, when they don’t, they need charging.) From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com
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Electron Carriers & Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Or Redox reaction = chemical reactions in which electrons are gained, lost or shared in a chemical reaction. ________ describes the loss of electrons by a molecule, atom or ion. _________ describes the gain of electrons by a molecule, atom or ion. Q: When NAD+ and FADH are turned into NADH and FADH 2 , are they being oxidized or reduced? Image: Oil Rig Platform , NASA From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com
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2. ______ ____ ____________ The two molecules of pyruvate (pyruvic acid above) result in: Two molecules of ______ ____ Two molecules of _____ (This is what generates carbon dioxide that you breathe out.) Two molecules of ______ (electron carrier) From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com
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3. ______ ______ (a.k.a Citric Acid Cycle) Great amount of energy remains in bonds of acetyl-CoA. The Krebs cycle transfers much of this energy to electron carriers NAD + & FAD. Occurs in cytoplasm of prokaryotes and in matrix of mitochondria in eukaryotes . The two molecules of Acetyl Co-A result in: Two molecules of Two molecules of ________ (electron carrier) Six molecules of ________ (electron carrier) Four molecules of _______ (This is what generates carbon dioxide that you breathe out.) Images: Krebs Cycle of Cellular Respiration , Regis Frey From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com
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4. ________ _______ Most of the ATP made in cellular respiration comes from the stepwise release of energy through a series of redox reactions between molecules known as the electron transport chain (ETC). Must occur in a membrane. The ETC is located in cristae of __________ in eukaryotes . Q: Where would the ETC of prokaryotes be located? Three main events important in the ETCs generation of ATP: 1. ______________________ 2. ______________________ 3. ______________________ Images: Mitochondrion diagram M. Rui; ATP-ADP Cycle , CUNY z From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com
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Electron Transport 1. ________________ The electron carriers (NADH and FADH2) bring electrons and protons (H+) to the ETC. Carrier molecules in the membrane of the mitochondria pass electrons from one to another and ultimately to final electron acceptor. Images: Mitochondrion diagram M. Ruiz Electron transport chain Tim Vickers From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com
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Electron Transport 2. _____________________ Energy from each electron being passed down the chain is used to pump protons (H+) from one side of the membrane to the other. Proton gradient = type of ____________ (difference in ion concentration on either side of a membrane) … potential energy available for work in cell.
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