11-3-11 Elementary Operational Amplifiers

# V inverting integrator for this part we were given a

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V. Inverting Integrator For this part, we were given a circuit (Fig. 13) to build. We then measured the input and output functions with the oscilloscope. The properties of the input voltage were a square wave with a 1V peak-to-peak amplitude and 100Hz frequency. Figure 13. The inverting integrator circuit

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Figure 14. The measurements from the simulated oscilloscope Figure 15. The measurements from the real oscilloscope Table 5. The values measured with the real oscilloscope. Input Output Wave Type Triangle wave Square wave () 0.960 2.94 Frequency () 98.62 98.66 With these results, we can measure the voltage gain and the phase shift: Conclusion All things considered, this lab could have gone much smoother. Building the circuits using solely a breadboard proved to be time-consuming, but was not very difficult. In the same vein, using the oscilloscope to properly measure things for the first time was also new, and as such it took a large amount of time to get just right. However, we managed to illustrate the concepts presented and gain a deeper understanding of the operational amplifier and its uses.
Error, as always, was an omnipresent complication, yet to an even greater degree in this experiment. Each circuit built proved to have some fickleness that would offset the data in horrendous ways, such as our ground being moved from one position to another, getting too close to the oscilloscope probes, or any other slight deviation from perfection. That having been said, we were able to get the work done, and analyze the circuits. All in all, this lab was incredibly informative, outstanding in its oscilloscope observations of op-amps, though thoroughly time consuming.
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