DSST Fundamentals of counseling

In cognitive therapy the counselor has the client

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In cognitive therapy the counselor has the client focus on clear, concrete, and specific goals . The goals must be very clear and measurable. They can have affective, behavioral or cognitive components but they must be very specific. The therapy is then set around devising plans to accomplish each of the smaller goals and work toward the overarching goal of ridding the client of all distorted thought patterns. Behavior therapy provides action oriented methods to help people change they way they think and react to situations and events.
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Behavior therapy has its roots in experimental psychology and the study of the learning process. Much of behavioral therapy is rooted in observational learning. Ivan Pavlov was the first Behavioral theorist. Pavlov created the first conditional experiment that systematically studied behavior and behavior changes. His work with dogs was monumental as he discovered that after a repeated series of events, the dogs would react from environmental clues rather than an actual stimulus. Pavlov’s experiments identified the theory of classical conditioning. Classical conditioning is the process whereby the presentation of a neutral stimulus (buzzer or light) followed immediately by a favored stimulus (food or other reward) produces an unconditioned response (salivation or other behavior) and after a few trials, the neutral stimulus (buzzer or light) itself produces the response (salivation or other behavior) which is now a learned behavior or conditioned response. Operant conditioning is a type of learning that occurs by altering the consequences of one’s actions. Operant conditioning gained attention when it appeared that cats “learned” how to escape out of box through trial and error. The time it took for the escape decreased with each attempt and a learning curve was derived that indicated repeated exposure to a situation would change the behavior in a positive way. Psychology was just beginning to emerge as a science late in the nineteenth century. At this time, Pavlov was using his skills as a physiologist to try to understand the basic processes of digestion. In his research he discovered a basic principle of conditioning known as a reflex. Ivan Pavlov is known for his experiments in classical conditioning with a dog. He would ring a bell every time he gave the dog food. Eventually, the dog became conditioned to salivate every time he heard the bell, even if there was no food. A reflex is defined as an unlearned, automatic response that occurs in the presence of specific stimuli. These are mental and physical reactions to the environment around a person. In Pavlov's experiment, the reflex being studied was salivation. Dogs salivate when they see food--it's a reflex because they don't have to think about salivating, it automatically happens as a response to the stimulus of food.
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