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Most-favored nation status:England, Belgium, the USA, etc. were given this status which mean low tariffs and promote free and easy trade between them and China.,Extraterritoriality:All crimes by British subjects would be judged in England rather than in China.War Indemnity:The $12 million paid by the Chinese to the British for bringing their war fleet to China.China’s Humiliation and Attempts at ReformTreaty of Wanghai 1844 (with U.S.):The U.S. recognized the Opium trade as illegal, China granted the U.S. extraterritorial rights, and tariffs on U.S. goods were set on a fixed amount. It also lifted a ban on the study of Mandarin and other local dialects which was very important for Christian missionaries.Treaties of Tientsin (Tianjin) 1858:Treaty directed at all European nations in China, all of them received “most-favored nation status.” Europeans stopped competing and worked collectively to extract the most they could from the Chinese government.Sino-Japanese War 1894-95:Japanese sent troops to the Korean peninsula, China then sent troops of their own and are defeated, then Japan continues and invades part of China. Seen as insulting and degrading because the Chinese always saw themselves above the Japanese.Treaty of Shimonoseki 1895:China had to cede Taiwan and recognize Korea as a protectorate of Japan and pay Japan a large sum of money. China was now not only under western threat but also under Asian threat. Taiping Rebellion:1850-1864. “Communist” social revolution in China that spread and was fairly successful.Hong Xiuquan:Leader of the Taiping Rebellion. He was a direct product of missionary efforts in Southern China. He saw himself as God’s Chinese son, or Jesus’ younger brother. He failed the Chinese civil service exam 4 times, and used his personal frustration to tap into
social discontent. He called for the elimination of the Manchu ruling clan because they weren’t native Chinese.Taiping egalitarian social agenda:Called for the abolition of private property, redistributed arable land based on family size rather than status. Provided equal access to the community’s resource and wealth and provided equality between men and women with free public education and universal literacy.Communal organization:The Taiping social organization was a form of militant Christianity known as the “Kingdom of Heavenly Peace.” Self-Strengthening Movement:Zeng Guofan and the American educated Yang Wing in 1863 tried to implement western technology which led to the construction of the Jiang-nan Arsenal, but they lacked sufficient human resources for actual modernization. “Western technology, Chinese morality.”One Hundred Days Reforms 1898:Political reform by imperial decree of Emperor Guangxu which provided for tolerance of free speech. Improvement of state infrastructure which called for the immediate construction of a railroad system, the improvement of the postal system, western weaponry and the training of soldiers. It also introduced patent and copyright laws to China.