Singapore Fire Safety Engineering Guidelines 2015_1.pdf

With sprinkler protection the total hrr for the

Info icon This preview shows pages 21–25. Sign up to view the full content.

With sprinkler protection, the total HRR for the following types of vehicles are as follows : 4 MW for cars/fork lifts 10 MW for goods vehicle 20 MW for buses/coaches
Image of page 21

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

21 Table 3.1 : Design Fire Characteristics (Pre-Flashover) Location / Usage Fire growth rate Offices Fast t 2 School classrooms, lecture halls, museums Medium t 2 Places of assembly (auditorium, theatres, performing arts) Seating Medium t 2 Stage - Fast t 2 If there is no control on the type of materials used for scenery, staging props (i.e. use of polystyrene, polyurethane, non-fire retardant drapes and curtains, etc), stage Ultrafast t 2 Exhibition (e.g. convention, expos, etc) Fast or Ultrafast t 2 , depending on items exhibited Recreational, amusement, night entertainment Fast t 2 If there is no control on the type of materials used for scenery, staging props (i.e. use of polystyrene, polyurethane, non-fire retardant drapes and curtains, etc), stage Ultrafast t 2 (b) Post-Flashover (Used for structural fire engineering analysis) Post flashover fires (i) Ventilation Controlled In a post-flashover fire, the heat release rate can be limited by the amount of air that can enter the fire affected compartment. Ventilation controlled heat release rate, Q v : Q v = 1.5 x A v x h 1/2 - - - - - - - - - - (3.1) Where: A v is total area of wall openings (m 2 ) h is the weighted average height of openings (m) Ventilation Controlled
Image of page 22
22 (ii) Time-Temperature Curves (Flashover) References can also be made to other guidance documents including time-temperature curves (e.g. parametric, Swedish fire curves). Time- Temperature Curves 3.3 Where the fire engineering assessment requires an assessment of human tenability to be made, the following limits of acceptability will apply: Acceptance Criteria Figure 3.2 Tenability criteria to be sampled at 2.5m from the finish floor level. (a) Smoke Temperature The average upper layer smoke temperature shall not exceed 200 o C measured at 2.5m height from finished floor level and the average lower layer smoke temperature shall not exceed 60 o C. Temperature (b) Radiation Where occupants are expected to egress past a fire, the radiative heat flux shall not exceed 2.5 kW/m 2 . Radiation (c) Visibility at 2.5m above the floor level shall be greater than 10m. Visibility (d) Where the use of FED is to be used as an acceptance criterion, (for example, in situation where the ceiling is low and the use of acceptance criteria (a) to (c) is not feasible). Fractional Effective Dose (FED) for temperature and toxic gases shall not exceed 0.3. Fractional Effective Dose
Image of page 23

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

23 The use of FED as a criterion shall be subject to SCDF’s agreement. When proposed, the FSE would need to justify for FED criterion to be adopted in the design. Where FED analysis is permitted by SCDF, the guide for the sampling shall be as follows (i) Methodology for FED determination The recommended methodology for FED determination is proposed below. Depending on the nature of the deviation, FSE may propose other methodologies for determining FED. FSE would need to consult SCDF before embarking on the FEDB.
Image of page 24
Image of page 25
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.
  • Three '18
  • Dr. Anthony
  • Microelectronics, Active fire protection, Fire protection, Computational fluid dynamics, Heat release rate, FSE

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern