Definition:indicates hemoglobinTerm:Chemical test includes:Definition:- pH- Protein- glucose- ketones- bile pigments
Term:If the sample is bloody or cloudy, thechemical test should be performed:Definition:on supernatant after spinningTerm:Urine pHDefinition:- concentration of hydrogen ionspresent in the urineTerm:pH for calcium phosphate andstruvite crystalsDefinition:alkaline urineTerm:pH for calcium oxalate crystalsDefinition:Acidic urineTerm:pH may be increased in oder samplesdue to:Definition:- increased bacteria in sample- loss of CO2
Term:vegetarian diet urine isDefinition:alkaline urineTerm:meat, high protein grain, and nursingyoung urine is:Definition:acidic urine - cat urine is acidicTerm:omnivore urine is:Definition:varies from acidic to alkalineTerm:pathologic causes of alkaline urine:Definition:Urinary tract infections caused byurease-producing bacteria
Term:Pathologic causes of aciduriaDefinition:- starvation (muscle catabolism)- fever- respiratory acidosis (rapidbreathing)- metabolic acidosis * decreased liver function* decreased kidney function* diarrhea* vomitingTerm:For an accurate pH measurementDefinition:use a pH meter- dipstick is inaccurate (plus or minus.5%)Term:Protein is usuallyDefinition:negative- reabsorbed in the tubules - may be normal in concentrated urineTerm:reasons for proteinuriaDefinition:- transient increase from high proteinmeal- trauma during collection of urine- increased WBCs or RBCs in urine- Lyme nephritis, protein losingnephropathy - renal disease
Term:Animals with consistant levels ofproteinuria in either dilute urine orurine without an active sediment need:Definition:to have further evaluation: UPC - urine protein:creatinineTerm:Active sediment is:Definition:increased WBC and RBC in urine(indicative of inflamation)Term:Glucose in urineDefinition:normally negativeTerm:hyperglycemiaDefinition:may lead to glucosuria if there-absorbtion capacity of the tubulesis exceeded (>180 mg/dl in dogs;>300 mg/dl in cats)Term:Hyperglycemia is found in whatconditions?Definition:- diabetes mellitus- extreme stress or excitement in cats- administration of glucose-containingfluids
Term:Fanconi syndromeDefinition:- glucosuria without hyperglycemia- rare, proximal tubule defect- why you need to look at blood andruine simultaneously when evaluatingthe patientTerm:KetonesDefinition:produced when fatty acids are used asa primary energy source- normaly negativeTerm:small animal diabetic ketoacidosismust have:Definition:concurrent glucosuriaTerm:Dairy cattle, ewes w/ pregnancytoxemiaDefinition:- carbohydrate intake does not keep upwith metabolic demands resulting inketonuria
Term:Bile pigment- bilirubin or urobilinogenDefinition:- RBC breakdown byproductstransported to the liver- small amount may be normal inconcentrated male dog urine- pathologic causes include liverdisorders, bile duct obstruction, andhemolysis - look at blood work ifhyperbilirubinuria presentTerm:Is bilirubin normal in a cat?