Definition indicates hemoglobin term chemical test

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Definition: indicates hemoglobin Term: Chemical test includes: Definition: - pH - Protein - glucose - ketones - bile pigments
- blood
Term: If the sample is bloody or cloudy, the chemical test should be performed: Definition: on supernatant after spinning Term: Urine pH Definition: - concentration of hydrogen ions present in the urine Term: pH for calcium phosphate and struvite crystals Definition: alkaline urine Term: pH for calcium oxalate crystals Definition: Acidic urine Term: pH may be increased in oder samples due to: Definition: - increased bacteria in sample - loss of CO2
Term: vegetarian diet urine is Definition: alkaline urine Term: meat, high protein grain, and nursing young urine is: Definition: acidic urine - cat urine is acidic Term: omnivore urine is: Definition: varies from acidic to alkaline Term: pathologic causes of alkaline urine: Definition: Urinary tract infections caused by urease-producing bacteria
Term: Pathologic causes of aciduria Definition: - starvation (muscle catabolism) - fever - respiratory acidosis (rapid breathing) - metabolic acidosis * decreased liver function * decreased kidney function * diarrhea * vomiting Term: For an accurate pH measurement Definition: use a pH meter - dipstick is inaccurate (plus or minus .5%) Term: Protein is usually Definition: negative - reabsorbed in the tubules - may be normal in concentrated urine Term: reasons for proteinuria Definition: - transient increase from high protein meal - trauma during collection of urine - increased WBCs or RBCs in urine - Lyme nephritis, protein losing nephropathy - renal disease
Term: Animals with consistant levels of proteinuria in either dilute urine or urine without an active sediment need: Definition: to have further evaluation: UPC - urine protein:creatinine Term: Active sediment is: Definition: increased WBC and RBC in urine (indicative of inflamation) Term: Glucose in urine Definition: normally negative Term: hyperglycemia Definition: may lead to glucosuria if the re-absorbtion capacity of the tubules is exceeded (>180 mg/dl in dogs; >300 mg/dl in cats) Term: Hyperglycemia is found in what conditions? Definition: - diabetes mellitus - extreme stress or excitement in cats - administration of glucose-containing fluids
Term: Fanconi syndrome Definition: - glucosuria without hyperglycemia - rare, proximal tubule defect - why you need to look at blood and ruine simultaneously when evaluating the patient Term: Ketones Definition: produced when fatty acids are used as a primary energy source - normaly negative Term: small animal diabetic ketoacidosis must have: Definition: concurrent glucosuria Term: Dairy cattle, ewes w/ pregnancy toxemia Definition: - carbohydrate intake does not keep up with metabolic demands resulting in ketonuria
Term: Bile pigment - bilirubin or urobilinogen Definition: - RBC breakdown byproducts transported to the liver - small amount may be normal in concentrated male dog urine - pathologic causes include liver disorders, bile duct obstruction, and hemolysis - look at blood work if hyperbilirubinuria present Term: Is bilirubin normal in a cat?

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