Various studies in the Journals Nature Science and the Journal of Climate have

Various studies in the journals nature science and

This preview shows page 168 - 174 out of 177 pages.

Various studies in the Journals Nature, Science, and the Journal of Climate have shown that: Over the past 35 years there has been a 70% increase in hurricane intensity , meaning hurricanes have become more powerful and longer in duration. Number of category 1, 2, and 3 hurricanes has fallen slightly, and the number of category 4 and 5 hurricanes has climbed dramatically. Big storms have grown from just 20% of the global total to 35% today. Temperature sets the maximum intensity that a storm can reach. If you increase the temperature, you increase the intensities of all hurricanes and tropical storms.
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2) Shifts in the paths of large-scale cyclonic storms. This would affect the distribution of precipitation and the occurrence of severe storms, including tornadoes. 3) More intense heat waves and drought in some regions, and fewer such events in other places. 4) More intense thunderstorms over a larger part of the country. 5) Already El Nino events are becoming more frequent and more intense. The El Nino event of 2015 – 2016 was one of the three strongest ever. The excess heat in the oceans resulting from climate change is released by hurricanes and El Ninos. This is Nature’s way of dissipating warmth from the tropics into the middle latitudes. El Ninos will be more intense and more frequent as the planet warms.
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Shrub and Tree Expansion in the Arctic (Positive Feedback) Climate change is encouraging widespread shrub and tree expansion northward towards the poles. Shrubs expand into the tundra and boreal forests move north. Shrubs are now growing in areas that were devoid of them as little as 50 years ago. As forests and shrubs expand, replacing ice surfaces and tundra, they bring increased absorption of solar radiation, resulting in decreased albedo which generates more surface warming, and thereby melting more land and sea ice.
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Forest growth in the Arctic does increase CO 2 uptake, but this beneficial effect will be overwhelmed by the release of large stores of CH 4 (methane) and CO 2 as tundra regions thaw. This is the positive feedback (previously noted) of melting of methane hydrates.
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Bangladesh Half the country of 165 million people lies at elevations less than 5 meters (16.4 feet) above sea level. Marshal Islands 80% of the country lies at elevations less than 5 meters (16.4 feet) above sea level. If sea level rises by 1.5 feet, the number of people per year worldwide dealing with flooding from storm surge goes from 50 to 100 million. Rise in sea level of 3.28 feet (1 meter) Egypt - 1% of land area is flooded (but only 4% of the entire area of Egypt is habitable, the rest is desert.) Netherlands - 6% of land area is flooded. Bangladesh - 17.5% of land area is flooded.
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Acidifying Oceans CO 2 levels in the atmosphere are rising. This means more of the gas reacts with seawater to produce bicarbonate and hydrogen ions. This increases the acidity of the surface layer of the ocean. (When the ocean becomes more acidic pH levels go down .) Ocean pH levels 8.3 after the last ice age 8.2 before the industrial era Less than 8.1 now (more acidic than during the last ice age.) We are changing the chemistry of the oceans, and we do not know what it’s going to do. By 2100 AD pH will have dropped by at least 0.3, becoming even more acidic.
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