17/05/201754Total expenditure of Italian households(2,4 components on average)°2360€/month (2013)Food expenditure°461€/monthLarge differences among regions:North- West: 469 €/month vs. 2673North- East: 442 €/month vs. 2725Centre : 477 €/month vs. 2436South : 469 €/month vs. 1878Islands: 427 €/month vs. 1639Regional consumptionSource: ISTAT data60657075% meat consumption19942000200520102012YearsApuliaLombardyItaly% Meat consumption sometimes a week
17/05/20175530405060F&V consumption (%)19942000200520102012TimeApuliaLombardyItaly% Fruit and vegatable consumption more than once a day4550556065Fish consumption (%)19942000200520102012YearsApuliaLombardyItaly% Fish consumption sometimes a week
17/05/201756Quality attributes of food productsFood attributesFood safety attributesFood-borne pathogensHeavy-metals and toxinsPesticide or drug-residuesFood additives, preservativesSpoilage and botulismIrradiationNutrition attributesCaloriesFat and Cholesterol contentSodium and mineralsCarbohydrates & Fiber contentProteinsVitaminsIntrinsic quality attributesSensory/Organoleptic attributesTaste and tendernessColorAppearence and blemishesFreshnessSoftnessSmell/AromaValue/function attributesSizeStylePreparation/ConveniencePackage materialsLong shelf lifeProcess attributesAnimal welfarePlace of originTraceabilityBiotechnologyEnvironmental impactWorker safetyFonte: Caswell, Noelke, Mojduszka(2002)
17/05/201757Test / Measurement indicatorsQuality management SystemsCertificationLabellingMinimum Quality StandardsFonte: Caswell, Noelke, Mojduszka (2002)CuesPriceBrandManufacturer nameStore namePackagingAdvertisingCountry of originDistribution outletWarrentyReputationPast purchasing experiencesOther informationExtrinsic quality attributesFood attributesProduct attributesAsymmetric Information--> information research done by consumers --> cost-benefit (Stigler, 1961)Food product attribute classification°information searchand quality attributes-searchattributes--> can be obtained before purchase-experienceattributes-->canbeobtainedonlyafterpurchase-credeanceattributes --> nor before nor after
17/05/201758Time preferences & eating behaviorsTime Preferences: •Willingness to trade a current utility for a delayed utility °People’s willingness to accept a larger amount in the future versus a smaller amount sooner•TP can be also seen as a measure of impatience.Time preference: how one values the present vs the futureHigh time preferences-High future discounting -Less willing to delay gratification-Present-oriented -Low future discounting -More willing to delay gratification-Future-oriented Low time preferences
17/05/201759M. Grossman’s ‘demand for health’, (1972).Health is an economicgood that everyone inherits at birth, and that depreciates with aging. Thedepreciation of health capital stock can be offset by:°direct investments (e.g. medical care)°indirect investmentshealth behavioursHealth behavioursimply a trade-off between a current satisfaction anda future benefit. They representintertemporal choicesin which timepreferences have a primary role.