The odds ratio is an appropriate estimation of the

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Quiz 3 - PubH6003.docx

1 .   In a study begun in 1965 , a group of 5,000 healthy adults residing in St. Louis were asked about dietary patterns . The occurrence of cases of coronary heart disease was studied in this group between 1966 - 1995 . This is an example of a :
a. Case control study
b. Cross sectional study
c. Clinical trial
d. Retrospective cohort study
e. Prospective cohort study
Answer:  d.   Retrospective cohort study
2 .   In a prospective cohort study of smokers and non-smokers , the following rates of bladder cancer per 100,000 person - years ( PY ) were observed ( Table 1 ) Table 1 : Rates of Bladder Cancer by Gender and Smoking Status Smokers Non-Smokers Males 46/100,000 PY 12/100,000 PY Females 11/100,000 PY 4/100,000 PY Among males , what would be the relative risk of bladder cancer for smokers compared to non - smokers ?
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3 .   Which type of study design is best suited for the investigation of a rare disease ?
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4 .   The odds ratio is an appropriate estimation of the relative risk when :
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5 .   An epidemiologic study was undertaken to determine the relationship between alcohol consumption and the occurrence of laryngeal cancer . Estimates of mean levels of per capita alcohol consumption in New York State and Illinois were compared to the incidence rates of laryngeal cancer in these two states during the same time frame . Incident cases of laryngeal cancer were identified from the state cancer registries . The incidence rates of laryngeal cancer were shown to increase with increasing per capita consumption of alcohol . What type of study was this ?
a. Cross sectional study
b. Census survey
c. Cohort study
d. Case control study
e. Ecologic study
Answer:  c.   Cohort study
6 .   Which of the following statements describes a major advantage of randomly assigning study participants to the different treatment groups in a clinical trial ?
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7 .   The concept of the “ ecologic fallacy ” refers to :
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8 .   Retrospective cohort studies are characterized by all of the following except :
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9 .   Which type of study is best suited for the investigation of a rare exposure ?
a . Clinical trial
b . Cohort study
c . Cross sectional study
d . Case control study
e . Ecologic study
Answer:  b .   Cohort study
10 .   The following data were collected in a cross sectional study Stress level With Migraines W / out Migraines Total High stress 120 204 324 Low stress 60 816 876 Total 180 1020 1200 From these data , the prevalence odds ratio that examined the correlation between high stress levels and migraine headaches was calculated to be :
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4. The odds ratio is an appropriate estimation of the relative risk when: a. The disease in question is rare b. The number of cases approximates the number of controls c. The base population is large d. The cases are based on prevalence data e. The degree of statistical significance is small
5. An epidemiologic study was undertaken to determine the relationship between alcohol consumption and the occurrence of laryngeal cancer. Estimates of mean levels of per capita alcohol consumption in New York State and Illinois were compared to the incidence rates of laryngeal cancer in these two states during the same time frame. Incident cases of laryngeal cancer were identified from the state cancer registries. The incidence rates of laryngeal cancer were shown to increase with increasing per capita consumption of alcohol. What type of study was this?
6. Which of the following statements describes a major advantage of randomly assigning study participants to the different treatment groups in a clinical trial?

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