Trade was also a part of the Old and New Worlds. During the Longshan Period of the Late Neolithic, precious items were traded. These were in the bronze age and consisted of tin and copper. These metals made for firm edges and could be produced for weapons such as swords and daggers. During the Mediterranean, the Minoan Crete trade network used ships, keels and high prows while transporting goods. Copper came from Turkey; ivory, gold, and amethyst were from Egypt; laps lazuli was from Afghanistan, and amber came from Scandinavia. Trade networks had political ties and substantial economic benefits. Persian Gulf trade provided shells, metals such as silver and gold, timber, and skins. Other items that were traded in networks were agricultural goods in surplus. The Chaco Phenomenon had chief level societies with big trade networks where people traveled to exchange goods. It was also believed to be a turquoise processing location. During the Middle Woodland, the Hopewell interaction sphere saw trade for the United States to Canada. Copper and silver came out of North Michigan; Mica Quartz crystal was from the South Appalachians; marine shell, shar, and alligator teeth were from Florida and the Gulf Coast; galena and flint came from Illinois and Indiana, and obsidian was from Wyoming. Many of the trade routes ran from the valleys all the way to the coast. Early civilizations in a complex urban society saw people developing specialized crafts. The middle-class produced goods and soldiers worked on assigned duties. Skilled workers made
THE TEN CRITERIA 7 molds for large scale pottery productions. Like the Inka in the Andes had centralized governments, cities, and hierarchical societies. Sheep were the source of wool that the textile manufacturers used in one of their major economic activities. This was of the third-millennium southern Mesopotamia. Textile centers had over 4,000 adults and 1,800 children working as weavers (Fagan, 2016, p. 89). In Egypt, people who worked for the state received commodities like, corn, wine, oils, and whatever other items were available for distribution at the time. People built canals, planted and harvested, and were all in accordance with the states. Also, during times of community, residents would get together to build pyramids and tombs. State organizations took care of villagers. Many thought that at one-time slave labor was used to produce mass monuments and buildings, but ruins of villager told a different story. In the history of Old and New Worlds, there were some similarities but as progress continued old ways found new innovative ways of doing things.
THE TEN CRITERIA 8 Bibliography Fagan, M., & Scarre, C. (2016). Ancient Civilizations. New York, NY: Routledge
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