Answers PE_Chapters1-5.doc.docx

7 a the statement that society faces a short run

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7. a. The statement that society faces a short-run tradeoff between inflation and unemployment is a positive statement. It deals with how the economy is , not how it should be. Since economists have examined data and found that there is a short-run negative relationship between inflation and unemployment, the statement is a fact, thus it is a positive statement. b. The statement that a reduction in the rate of growth of money will reduce the rate of inflation is a positive statement. Economists have found that money growth and inflation are very closely related. The statement thus tells how the world is, and so it is a positive statement. c. The statement that the Federal Reserve should reduce the rate of growth of money is a normative statement. It states an opinion about something that should be done, not how the world is. d. The statement that society ought to require welfare recipients to look for jobs is a normative statement. It doesn't state a fact about how the world is. Instead, it is a statement of how the world should be and is thus a normative statement. e. The statement that lower tax rates encourage more work and more saving is a positive statement. Economists have studied the relationship between tax rates and work, as well as the relationship between tax rates and saving. They have found a negative relationship in both cases. So the statement reflects how the world is, and is thus a positive statement. 11
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8. Two of the statements in Table 2 are clearly normative. They are: "5. If the federal budget is to be balanced, it should be done over the business cycle rather than yearly" and "9. The government should restructure the welfare system along the lines of a 'negative income tax.'" Both are suggestions of changes that should be made, rather than statements of fact, so they are clearly normative statements. The other statements in the table are positive. All the statements concern how the world is, not how the world should be. Note that in all cases, even though they are statements of fact, fewer than 100 percent of economists agree with them. You could say that positive statements are statements of fact about how the world is, but not everyone agrees about what the facts are. 9. As the president, you'd be interested in both the positive and normative views of economists, but you'd probably be most interested in their positive views. Economists are on your staff to provide their expertise about how the economy works. They know many facts about the economy and the interaction of different sectors. So you would be most likely to call on them about questions of fact positive analysis. Since you are the president, you are the one who has to make the normative statements as to what should be done, with an eye to the political consequences. The normative statements made by economists represent their own views, not necessarily your views or the electorate’s views.
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