Physical Science 8th grade (1).pdf

B which of the foods you selected for your menu

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b. Which of the foods you selected for your menu contains the greatest amount of protein? c. Which of the foods contains the greatest amount of fat? d. Which three of your selected foods would you consider to be the most healthy? Explain why you chose these foods and what you think it means to say that a food is healthy. Chapter 11 Activity
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C HAPTER 11 T HE C HEMISTRY OF L IVING S YSTEMS 239 Chapter 11 Assessment Vocabulary Select the correct term to complete the sentences. Section 11.1 1. The branch of chemistry that specializes in carbon and carbon compounds is called ____. 2. The chemical energy that supports the food chain on Earth comes from a reaction called ____. 3. The reaction that breaks down glucose and releases its stored energy is called ____. 4. Sugars and starches are classified as ____. 5. DNA is an example of a(n) ____. Section 11.2 6. High-energy ____ molecules are used to store energy in reserve. 7. ____ are made up of amino acids. 8. When a fat molecule has two hydrogen atoms bonded to each carbon atom, it is called a ____ fat. 9. When a fat molecule has some carbon atoms double bonded to each other, along with hydrogen atoms, it is called a(n) ____ fat. 10. ____ are organic molecules that are the building blocks of proteins. 11. ____ allow your body to initiate chemical reactions and control the reaction rates. 12. Changes in DNA are called ____. 13. Enzymes are a type of ____ for chemical reactions. 14. The process the cells in your body use to build proteins from amino acids is called ____. 15. The molecular components within DNA that contain the code for building proteins from amino acids are ____. Concepts Section 11.1 1. What do all organic molecules have in common? 2. What makes carbon uniquely suited to being the basis for biological molecules? 3. Describe the four types of biological molecules. Give an example for each type: a. carbohydrate b. fat c. protein d. nucleic acid 4. What elements are carbohydrates made of? 5. Why do sugars break down so quickly in your body? 6. What is the difference between a starch molecule and a cellulose molecule? 7. Why does the high specific heat of water make it essential to life? 8. Explain how photosynthesis and respiration are related carbon reactions. nucleic acid fat carbohydrates photosynthesis unsaturated proteins cellular respiration organic chemistry partially hydrogenated catalyst protein synthesis nitrogen bases amino acids mutations enzymes
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240 C HAPTER 11 T HE C HEMISTRY OF L IVING S YSTEMS 9. Which process adds oxygen (O 2 ) to Earth’s atmosphere? a. photosynthesis b. cellular respiration c. protein synthesis 10. What process removes carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from the atmosphere? a. photosynthesis b. cellular respiration c. protein synthesis 11. What process does the diagram illustrate? 12. Digestion breaks down food into molecules the body can use. What type of molecules are each of the following broken down into?
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