By the fall of 1970 segregation by law de jure had been abolished but

By the fall of 1970 segregation by law de jure had

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b. The government has wrestled with the idea that it is responsible for fighting de facto segregation, such as when whites and blacks live in separate neighborhoods without any influence from the government i. Some districts have redrawn boundaries to force schools to be more integrated ii. Sometimes these newly drawn districts have required busing students great distances from their homes iii. These efforts have generally not been popular 5. Other Racial Integration Cases a. Baltimore v. Dawson (1955) – swimming pools & rec centers b. Gayle v. Browder (1956) – local transportation c. Lee v. Washington (1968) – state and local prisons d. Palmore v. Sidoti (1984) – child custody cases e.. Loving v. Virginia (1967) – anti-miscegenation laws F. Classification by Sex 1. The Supreme Court, like society, has tolerated a great deal of sex discrimination in spite of the inclusive language of the 14 th Amendment a. Bradwell v. Illinois (1873) upheld the exclusion of women from the practice of law b. Hoyt v. Florida (1961) upheld a law that required men to serve on juries while giving women a choice 2. The Court first struck down a sex-based classification in Reed v. Reed (1971) -an Idaho law gave fathers preference over mothers in administering a deceased child’s estate 3. Other Cases a. Taylor v. Louisiana (1975) – States can’t exclude women from juries b. Craig v. Boren (1976) – States can’t have different ages to purchase alcohol for men and women c. United States v. Virginia (1996) – States can’t exclude women from public military academies d. Rotary International v. Rotary Club of Duarte (1987) – The Court upheld a state law forcing service clubs to integrate III. Federal Civil Rights Laws A. From the 1870s to the 1950s there was no meaningful civil rights legislation B. From the 1950s to 1980s Congress passed many important laws aimed at fighting discrimination 1. 1964 Civil Rights Act – accomplished three main goals a. No discrimination for public accommodations (such as hotels and restaurants) on account of race, color, religion, national origin, or physical disability b. No discrimination for race, color, religion, national origin, sex, or physical disability in any program that receives federal funding c. No employment discrimination (or labor union) for race, color, religion, sex, physical disability, or age
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2. 1968 Civil Rights Act – Open Housing Act a. No refusal to rent or sell a dwelling for race, color, religion, national origin, sex, disability, or family with children b. In 1988 Congress authorized the Justice Department file criminal charges for violations of this act C. Affirmative Action 1. Requires employers to take positive steps to remedy the effects of past discriminations 2. Applies to all Federal Government agencies, state and local governments, and private employers who sell goods or services to the Federal government 3. Workforce must reflect the general makeup of the population in its locale 4. No inequalities in matters of pay, promotions, and fringe benefits 5. Critics claim this amounts to Reverse Discrimination
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