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Primary versus secondary sources The former are records produced by contemporaries of an event; the latter are interpretations of primary sources made by other not immediately present at the event. Quota sample A selection of people that matches that sample to the population on the basis of certain selected characteristics. Random sample A sample in which every member of the population is eligible for inclusion and individuals are selected by chance. Reliability The degree to which repeated measurements of the same variable, using the same or equivalent instruments, are equal. Replication Repeating a research project in an attempt to verify earlier findings. Secondary analysis The examination by a researcher of someone else’s data. Spurious relationship The appearance that two variables are in a causal relationship, when in fact each is an effect of a common third variable. Theory A set of interrelated statements or propositions about a particular subject matter. Triangulation The application of several research methods to the same topic in the hope that the weaknesses of any one method may be compensated for by the strengths of the others. Validity The degree to which a measure actually measures what it claims to. Variable A characteristic, such as income or religion, that takes on different values among different individuals or groups. Causes generally called independent variables, and effects are usually called dependent variables. Verstehen The understanding of behaviour as opposed to the predicting of behaviour.
12 Chapter 3 Culture OverviewCulture: knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society. Developed by Edward Tylor (19thCentury); Something shared by all or almost all members of some social group. Something older group members pass to younger members and (a cultural element):shapes behaviour/ structures perceptions of the world. Behaviour is patterned Basic ConceptsValues: shared relatively general beliefs that define what is desirable and what is undesirable (specify general preferences) i.e. The concept of divorce being the last resort Norms: relatively precise rules specifying which behaviours are permitted and which are prohibited for group members Breaking a norm will consequence a sanction (communicated disapproval) i.e. Physical distance between other people (personal space) theory by Hall. In Canada people speaking must be at least 30cm away unless conversation is private. Folkways: norms that do not evoke severe moral condemnation when violated (i.e. Wearing clothes) Mores: Norms that when violated provoke strong moral condemnation (i.e. Sexual assault/ arson/ murder etc) The difference between mores and folkways is the reaction they produce when violated Mos: singular or mores Role: a cluster of behavioural expectations associated with a particular social position within a society or group (this varies from culture to culture).