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-The allocation of training and opportunities for development may reflect (possibly unconscious) beliefs regarding the organizational return from such activities.2.What purposes does orientation serve for employers and workers?-Orientation is the process of introducing new workers to the organization’s philosophy, policies, rules, and procedures. Closing linked to orientation is socialization, which is the process whereby workers absorb and take on the norms and values of an organization, essentially turning from outsider to insider. Orientation can be formal, informal, or both. Socialization may go beyond the innocent orientations suggested in the textbook to include introducing new recruits to dubious practices and seeking their compliance.-John Storey, a leading professor in a business school in the United Kingdom, has commented that the “management of culture” has become a distinguishing feature of human resource management (HRM) and this “remarkable trend” away from “personnel procedures and rules” towards the management of culture can be dated from the early to mid-1990s (2001, p. 8). Corporate cultural management is “perceived to offer the key to the unlocking of consensus, flexibility and commitment.” The idea behind this shift is clear; consensus would displace conflict (and collective bargaining); flexibility (a “substitute term for greater management control”) would increase productivity; and commitment would increase labour performance (“committed employees would ‘go the extra mile’ in pursuit of customer service and organizational goals”) (p. 8).-Achieving all of this means changing a whole set of workers’ behaviours, attitudes, and values. That is to say, workers’ culture must be displaced by management’s culture. This can be seen in the recent trend away froma pluralist approach to the workforce, in which different interests sometimes coincide and sometimes conflict. The trend is also moving away from quasi-democratic culture, where, for example, unions challenge management decisions in collective bargaining. Meanwhile, management is applying a unitarist perspective, with everyone in the organization assumed to be sharing exactly the same goals, and a pretend democratic culture (i.e., with claims of “empowerment” and work taking place in “teams”).-Orientation activities convey not simply facts about where the washrooms are and how parking is handled, but they shape how workers view their role in the organization and how they approach their jobs