Queen supersedure o Crawling unhealthy adult bees in hive and at entrance Brood

Queen supersedure o crawling unhealthy adult bees in

This preview shows page 93 - 95 out of 99 pages.

Queen supersedure oCrawling, unhealthy adult bees in hive and at entrance Brood symptoms oVarroa mites, spotty brood, dead brood of all ages w mix of symptoms, oYoung brood twisted and brown (EFB), older dead brood not ropy (AFB), but may be elongated and not easily removed, and lacks characteristic odour of either Mimics other disease, and no specific pathogen has been identified Reducing varroa mites and their disease transmission may be key Beekeepers using mite control and/or feeding sugar syrup or using Crisco patties seem to have fewer colonies adversely affected Beekeepers have noted that a rest period from stressful pollination of monocultural floral situations overwinter better and respond better to spring stimulate w protein and sugar feeding Reducing mite levels and requeening w resistant stock reduce negative viral effects Colony Collapse Disorder Symptoms: oAbsence of adult bee population, but honey, pollen and brood present oAbsence of bee bodies within/ near collapsed hives oLoss occurs in over 50% of colonies, independent of apiary health oCollapse occurs rapidly, within a month, prior to wintering Characterized by abrupt decline in adult bee population, significantly faster than parasite attack (wax moths or small hive beetles) or robbing Studies have failed to identify a single factor or combination of factors that trigger it oViral influence: mutated, IAP, significantly high viral load oPesticides: chronic exposure, synergistic interactions, acute off-site poisoning, improper in-hive use oAgricultural influences: monocultures leading to poor nutr, declines in bee pasturage oSolar radiation/ magnetic field interruptions Other factors: monoculture revolution, GMOs, new pesticides, parasites and viruses, decreased funding for regulation, selection against high-yield bee forage vegetation, urbanization, new technology, wild competition Best current defense is promoting general colony health oReserved use of in-hive chemical treatments, strong varroa mite management, and improving bee nutrition may improve survival rates Unit 12: Pests and Pesticides Honey Bee Pests
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Reading pages 345-352 Insects Many feed on honey bees and brood, honey and pollen or live in the hive Uncommon insects like spring and bristletails, earwigs and pscoids live inside the hive, feed on debris or dead bodies and do no apparent harm Cockroaches are also hive residents Outside, foraging workers are eaten by dragonflies, praying mantis, robber flies, and ambush bugs Dead adult and brood in front of the hive and on the hive bottom board may attract scavenger insects oFlies, beetles, and mites are common, but none are serious pests Termites are a worldwide pest in wooden hive equipment oNot possible to maintain unprotected hives in tropical areas oBreaking wood-to-ground contact and protecting hive stands and bottom boards w wood preservatives may offer some protection oNon-wooden materials are better for hive stands in strongly affected areas (plastic & cement) o
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