4 discuss the temple at arad when was it built

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4. Discuss the temple at Arad. When was it built? Briefly describe its main parts. (You may want to draw a plan of the temple to clarify your discussion.) Review the specific evidence of its cult (e.g., sacrificial altar) and its priesthood. Finally, explain briefly how the artifactual evidence might relate to Hezekiah’s cultic reform reported in 2 Kings 18. -Built in: 20 miles east of Beersheba and first built in the 10 th century, and according to Dever it’s the only Israelite temple ever found -Description of main parts (include plan): 1) Originally a bipartite structure (10 th cent); had a large outer courtyard, and a main hall or broad room with benches lining two sides, and a back niche thought to be an inner shrine 2) The later (9 th cent) modification included the addition of a long room on one side of the courtyard, making the temple a tripartite structure. Yet this did not resemble the Solomonic tripartite structures, rather it resembled the Israelite domestic architecture 3) Other details included: a) sacrificial altar in the courtyard its size and construction both relate to descriptions in Exodus, with burnt animal bones at the base and a bronze lion figurine nearby (according to Dever a votive offering for Asherah) b) two shallow bowls next to the altar inscribed with Hebrew letters, indicating their purpose was to receive a portion of the sacrifice for the officiating priests c) the back niche or inner shrine with a two-step entrance and incense altars on each side, and two stone pillars (massebah) along the back wall, each possibly representing a deity (according to Dever and Avner they represented Yahweh and Asherah) d) ostraca with the names of priestly groups: Meremoth and Pashhur (in Ezra and Chronicles), Eshiyahu and Netanyahu (Yahwistic names), “Sons of Korah” and “Sons of Bezal” (Psalms and Exodus) -Specific evidence of cult & priesthood: all the aritfactual finds indicate that the Arad preists belonged to established priestly orders, and that Yahweh was worshipped at the Arad temple -Artifactual evidence relation to Hezekiah’s cultic reform (2 Kings 18): The reform was meant to unify the kingdom through the centralization of the sacrificial cult in Jerusalem, hopefully with the result being that Judean towns would become more dependent and thus more loyal to the king.
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5 . Present and evaluate (10-12 sentences) U. Avner’s interpretation of sacred pillars ( massebot ) in ancient Israelite religion. Be sure to address the following questions. (a) How does Avner know that pillars sometimes represent deities? (b) How does Avner use iconic (i.e., pictorial) evidence to support his interpretation of aniconic pillars? (c) Why, according to Avner, were the aniconic pillars deeply rooted in the pre-exilic Israelite cult? Avner is convinced that these specific stones in the desert had a cultic significance in the Israelite faith. Avner uses biblical and archaeological evidence to prove that these pillars, or more often referred to as, masseboth, were not just standing stones, but actually did represent the deities themselves. The Bible and ancient literature
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