Ozigi (1978:40) notes that the symptoms of indiscipline in schools are easily recognized or noticed unlike the real causes which are subtle. The nature of indiscipline can take various forms which he identified as demonstrations, unrests,
17 mass disobedience, deliberate breaching of school rules, drug use, drunkenness, stealing, truancy, absenteeism, lateness, bullying and laziness. Ozigi and Ocho (1981) identifies the various forms of indiscipline among students in Nigerian schools as, frequent acts of violence coupled with full destruction of property, flagrant disobedience, disrespect for elders and taking of dangerous drugs. According to the Californian Department of Education (2013), 691,470 California Elimentary school students were reported to be truant in the 2011 –2012 school year. It alleged that statewide, 38% of all truant students were elimentary school students. Rahul (2008), on nature of indiscipline, could not have summarized it better. He complains that, “….Newspapers are full of reports of unrest and indiscipline among students. Students go on strike, they resort to copying and cheating in examinations and insult their teachers and principals. They tear away pages from the library books, cut pictures from the magazines, write dirty things on the walls and indulge in many kinds of mischief. They clash with the police, throw stones and brickbats at them and practice violence at any pretext.” The study therefore aimed at finding out the nature of indiscipline prevailing in public day secondary schools in Makadara District. 2.3Causes of indiscipline among learners. Indiscipline is a state of disorder where school rules and regulations are not adhered to. It is a behavior disorder that is classified as an act of delinquency. It is often the cause of a lot of mental, emotional, and also physical damage to property in homes as well as in schools, (). There is therefore the need to understand the factors which drive and compel students to be in that state of indiscipline.
18 2.3.1School- based factors. These are factors which emanate from the school. They include absentee head teachers, inadequate meals and lack of teachers’ commitment. One major cause of indiscipline is the head teachers’ absence from school. Mugambi (2005) points out that the blame on indiscipline could be laid squarely at the feet of the head teachers. An absentee head teacher who is perpetually out of school is likely to meet the wrath of students. According to MOEST (2000) on indiscipline in Central province schools, one of the leading causes of unrests was the habitual absence of head teachers from schools. Some head teachers were not always in school to give guidance to those under them; they were not always available at critical times to give direction and counsel to teachers, students and support staff. The temptation to be absent from school is indeed greater in public day schools. This leads to loss of touch with the school. Absentee head teachers indeed create loopholes and lack of coordination in school activities, (KNA, 2008:33) Meals are of great value to students. Mugambi (2005) asserts that adolescents eat