Disorders of Blood Vessels•Arteriosclerosisresults from a loss of elasticity in the aorta, large arteries, and coronary arteries•Atherosclerosisis the deposition of lipid in arterial walls to form plaques•Aneurysm–weak spot in a blood vessel where it balloons out and may rupture•Varicose vein –developed when the valves of the veins become weak and ineffective•Phlebitis–inflammation of a veinand blood clots may form•Thrombosis–formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel•Embolism –obstruction of a blood vessel by a blood clot that travels in the bloodDeep veins of the legNormal blood flowDeep veins thrombosisEmbolusDeep vein thrombosisCatheter inVein causingRedness andinflammationVeinBlood clot(thrombus)Inflammation and thrombusformation due to trauma of veinAneurysmAtherosclerosisEndotheliumVessel wallAtherosclerotic plaque
Disorders of Blood Vessels•Heart attack –blood flow to the heart stops•Stroke (brain attack) –blood flow to a part of brain stops
Pulmonary and Systemic Circulation•Pulmonary circuit-The blood pathway between theright side of the heart to the lungs,and back to the left side of the heart•Systemic circuit-The blood pathway between theleft side of the heart to the body,and back to the right side of the heart
Systemic Circulation•Arteries carry blood from the left ventricle of the heart through the aorta•Move blood to all parts of the body •Return blood to the right atriumthrough the superior and inferior vena cava
Pulmonary Circulation •Moves blood to and from the lungs•Pulmonary trunk arises from the right ventricle and divides to form the pulmonary arteries (R and L), which project to the lungs•From the lungs, four pulmonary veinsreturn blood to the left atrium 25-40
Portal Circulation▪A portal venous system is a seriesof veins that directly connect twocapillary beds▪Examples:•Hepatic portal system-collects blood from the gastro-intestinal tract & spleen to theliver •Hypophyseal portal system-connects neurons in the hypothalamus to endocrine cells in the pituitary glandHepatic portal systemHypophyseal portal system26-40
Anastomosis▪Anastomosis•A connection between bloodvessels by means of collateralchannels•To provide alternative pathwayswhen usually routes are obstructedVenous anastomosisin the legArterial anastomosisat the elbow jointArteriovenous anastomosisvia the thoroughfare channelThoroughfare channelVenuleArterioleCapillary bed27-40
Cardiovascular System•Comprises:-Heart-Blood vessels-Blood cells 28-40
Blood▪Blood contains: •Plasma(liquid)•Cells(red blood cells, whiteblood cells, platelets)29-40
Plasma•Plasma-Light yellow liquid portion of the blood-Makes up about 55% of blood content-Contains salts, clotting factors, hormones, antibodies, dissolved gases, nutrients and wastesNote:Serumis the liquid portion of clotted blood(without fibrinogen).
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 85 pages?
- Spring '18
- YP Ching
- right ventricle