Mintzberg et al ib 227 argue that effective management essentially means to

Mintzberg et al ib 227 argue that effective

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behaviour that was not expressly intended in the strategic planning process. Mintzberg et al. (ib.: 227) argue that effective management essentially means to sustain learning while pursuing the strategies that work. Whereas deliberate strategies provide an organisation with a sense of purposeful direction, emergent strategies imply that the organisation is learning incrementally. Fig. 2: Strategy as plan and strategy as pattern (adapted from Mintzberg et al. 1998: 12) Like the linear model the adaptive model builds upon a number of basic premises: Monocausal cause-effect-thinking and means-ends-thinking does not cope with the interdependencies in complex systems. Conscious control of the complex actual environment is impossible. In the perpetual process of strategising formulation and implementation are not distinguishable. Strategising is not executed as a top-down process but through collective learning and adaptation. Prior task of the strategist is not to design deliberate strategies but to shape the process of strategic learning in a way that new strategies can occur. The adaptive approaches to strategy reverse the linear means-ends-relation. Instead of searching for appropriate means to achieve defined ends, in a perpetual process of adaptation to the organisational environment only those ends are chosen that can presumably be achieved by the given means. Strategic behaviour focuses here on the
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Induced versus Autonomous Behaviour in Regional Development – A Process Model for Regional Strategy Formation Thorsten Wiechmann 6 gradual adjustment of routines as a reaction to the dynamic environment. Articulated strategies might be reflected in action routines and in this way influence development paths. 3.3 Integrative perspectives on strategy In their study „Strategy Formation in an Adhocracy“ Henry Mintzberg and Alexandra McHugh (1985) illustrated the two strategy models by striking metaphors from gardening. The analogy of tomato cultivation in a hothouse describes the paradigm of linear strategy formation. Strategies are formulated through a conscious controlled process, much as tomatoes are cultivated in a hothouse. As ripe tomatoes are picked and sent to the market, strategies are explicitly developed and then formally implemented. To manage this process means to preconceive insightful strategies, and then plant them carefully. The paradigm of adaptive strategy formation is represented by the ‘grassroots model’. It describes the idea that strategies are not planted and cultivated like tomatoes in a hothouse, they grow like weeds in a garden. These strategies can take root in all kinds of places. Sometimes weeds encompass a whole garden. The processes of proliferation may be conscious but need not be. To manage it means not to preconceive strategies but to recognise their emergence and to intervene when appropriate without cutting off the unexpected too quick (Mintzberg et al. 1998: 196). By juxtaposing these two extreme models against each other Mintzberg and McHugh want to make clear that both models are overstated and that real strategic behaviour falls somewhere in between. “All real strategic behaviour has to combine deliberate
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