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DSST Business Ethics and Society-Study Guide 3

Although outsourcing might give a company increased

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specialized resources internally. Although outsourcing might give a company increased flexibility and additional expertise, it can also result in a loss of control over the work and a greater dependence on suppliers. The key advantages to outsourcing are the ability to find competitive and highly skilled specialists, cost benefits from external management and maintenance of information systems, as well as flexibility when an organization's needs are variable. Some organizations needs are not static but change regularly. By outsourcing, organizations can pay for what they need rather than invest heavily in the necessary labor, hardware and software. Relativism is not a single doctrine but a family of views whose common theme is that some central aspect of experience, thought, evaluation, or even reality is somehow relative to something else. For example standards of justification, moral principles or truth are sometimes said to be relative to language, culture, or biological makeup. Although relativistic lines of thought often lead to very implausible conclusions, there is something seductive about them, and they have captivated a wide range of thinkers from a wide range of traditions. Cultural relativism is where sociologists try not to let ethnocentrism affect their study of other cultures--they try to stay objective. Cultural relativism means the sociologist does not impose his own meaning on what is observed, or tries to focus only on the reason the observed element exists. The Corporate Ethics Officer of a company, expresses this belief: "Our company believes we should be judged by our company's announced views of what is right and wrong. We have a right to decide what behavior is acceptable or unacceptable, and we should be judged based upon how we live up to the standards we set for ourselves." This view shows a preference for ethical relativism. The Corporate Ethics Officer wants the company to be judged based upon its own feelings about what is right and wrong. This theory is not popular because members of society generally prefer universal standards of right and wrong. Ethical Egoism -- (also called simply egoism ) is the prescriptive doctrine that all persons ought to act from their own self- interest. It differs from psychological egoism , which claims that people can only act in their self-interest. Ethical egoism also differs from rational egoism , which holds merely that it is rational to act in one's self-interest. These doctrines may, though, be combined with ethical egoism. Critics of Google may argue that they are psychological egoists because their actions are guided by motivations that advance their interests. Psychological egoism is different from ethical egoism because the latter is a moral standard where the overriding obligation is the promotion of one’s own well-being.
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