intellectual foundation for recommendations on how to perform effectively in

Intellectual foundation for recommendations on how to

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intellectual foundation for recommendations on how to perform effectively in situations of high stakes decision making under time pressure and facing an adversary. Likewise, in the area of civil emergencies, much research is devoted to disaster preparedness, response and recovery policies and practices. Often focused on local and regional control and command issues, these studies examine the dynamics of dealing with man-made or natural disasters. Coordinating government agencies, such as EMERCOM in Russia, FEMA in the USA, Emergency Management Australia and Sweden’s MSB are active sponsors and users of this research. Training programs grounded in the findings of this scholarship flourish in this field in many countries. Going back to the early 1960s there has been a small but growing strand of interdisciplinary scholarship attempting to juxtapose and integrate findings from the ‘security’ and ‘safety’ domains, using the concept of crisis as a synthesizing device (Smart and Vertinsky, 1977; Rosenthal et al., 1989). For a long time, this has remained a niche interdisciplinary academic enterprise, whose work was largely ignored by the mono-disciplinary mainstreams in International Relations, Security Studies, and Disaster Sociology. In the wake of the 9/11 attacks and the massive investment in security policy it heralded, convergence between the two strands of research has 5
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become commonplace. Integrated approaches to studying ‘risk, crisis and emergency management’ have become the norm, consolidated in a range of increasingly holistic handbooks and textbooks (Borodzicz, 2005; Drennan and McConnell, 2007; Heath and O’Hair, 2010; Bennett, 2012; Farmbry, 2012), as well as dozens of ‘how-to’ manuals on organizational crisis communication, corporate crisis management and homeland security (e.g. Crandall et al., 2009; Bullock et al., 2012). The focus among both security and safety specialists has shifted towards generic vulnerabilities in modern societies, regardless of the source of the threat (e.g. critical infrastructures). A central question now is what regulatory policies and institutional architectures enhance organizational, governmental and societal resilience in the face of an ever-expanding risk catalogue containing many ‘unknown-unknowns’ and ‘mega crises’ (major disturbances originating in places and sectors far removed from one’s own (Roe and Schulman, 2008; Radvanovsky and McDougall, 2009; Comfort et al., 2010; Eriksson et al., 2010; Mitroff and Alpaslan 2011; Helsloot et al., 2012). Likewise, policy practices around the world have shifted towards ‘all-hazards’ contingency planning and the design of comprehensive institutional structures for ‘homeland security’, ‘domestic vulnerability management’, risk management, or ‘civil protection.’ (IRGC, 2011; Kamien, 2012; Missiroli, 2005; Olsson, 2009; OECD, 2011; World Economic Forum, 2012) Strategic-political perspectives Other scholars try to grasp the dynamics and immediate as well as secondary impacts that crises have on states, public leaders and society by focusing on their embeddedness inside wider social, political and cultural structures. In this perspective, the subjective rather than the objective
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