insisted on continuing practices such as private confession, clerical celibacy, and private masses (Tait, Coffman, Olsen, & Ashby, 2016). Completely separated now from the Pope, the Church of England was under England's rule, not Rome's. From 1536 to 1537, a great northern uprising known as the Pilgrimage of Grace took place, during which more than 30,000 people rebelled against the king's changes. It was the only major threat to Henry's authority as monarch. The rebellion's leader, Robert Aske, and 200 others were executed. When John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester, and Sir Thomas More, Henry's former Lord Chancellor, refused to take the oath to the king, they were all beheaded at Tower Hill (Henry VIII, 2016).
HENRY VIII & THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND 4 Henry then appointed Thomas Cromwell his chief minister and earned his trust by helping his break with Rome and establish Henry VIII as the head of the Church of England. Cromwell became very wealthy by ordering 800 monasteries to be disbanded and their lands and treasures taken away. The ethnic and social impact was momentous, the land was sold to the upper class and churches and monasteries were gutted and destroyed. Henry's personal religious beliefs remained Catholic, despite the growing number of people at court and in the nation who had adopted Protestantism (King Henry VIII, 2016). Cromwell was responsible in helping Henry to be married to his fourth wife, Anne of Cleves, just to help establish ties with the German Protestant alliance. The marriage was a disaster from the beginning, and Henry blamed Cromwell for his failed marriage and had Cromwell executed for treason (King Henry VIII, 2016).