Adding operations before or after the production

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Adding operations before or after the production process to gain control of all phases of an industry. This was a major method in the 19 th century to gain control of an industry. This involved controlling all aspects of a business from extraction of raw materials to marketing. New Immigrants Immigrants from southern and eastern Europe who were Jewish or Catholic in religion who came to the US after 1880. This caused the US to become more diversified causing a rise in social tensions in the cities and a call for limits on immigration arguments Knights of Labor Labor organization founded in 1869 by Stephens which organized all workers on a geographic basis. The proposed a cooperative system of production to be established along side competitive systems. It emphasized political changed and became less influential when people left It to join the American federation of labor American Federation of Labor Federation of craft unions founded in 1881 by Gompers. This federation organized skilled workers only and avoided political reforms while emphasizing bread and butter goals. This left majority of workers without organization until 1930. Patronage
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Practice of politicians rewarded political supports with office. This began with Andrew Jackson in 1829 and became the primary system of appointing people to government positions. Protective Tariff Tax on imported goods designed to protect American businessmen from foreign competition. This became an important sign of the power of the big business in the 19 th century and a primary way the government served business interests.
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