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4) emotional stability- how relaxed, secure and unworried 5) openness to experience- how intellectual, imaginative, curious and broad mindedstandardized personality test are used to score people on each dimensionextroversion has been associated with success for managers and sales people, stronger predictor of job performance than agreeablenessconscientiousness has been found to have strongest positive correlation with job and training performance**use professionals**don’t hire on the basis of personality test results alone
11:Managing Individual Difference & Behavior20:40**be alert for gender racial and ethnic bias**graphology(handwriting)tests don’t work but integrity tests doproactive personality- (score high on Big 5 may be this) someone who is more apt to take initiative and persevere to influence the enviidentify opportunities and act on them, associated with success and entrepreneurshiplocus of control-how much people believe they control their fate through their own effortsinternal-believe you control your own destinyexhibit less anxiety, greater work motivation, and stronger expectations that effort leads to performance, obtain higher salarieswill resist close managerial supervisionshould be placed in jobs requiring high initiative and low complianceprefer and respond more productively to incentives such as merit pay or sales commissionexternal- external forces control youmight do better in highly structured jobs requiring greater complianceself efficacy- belief in ones personal ability to do a taskpersonal belief about if you have what it takes to succeed high expectations of self efficacy have been linked with success in varied phys and mental tasks and reduced anxiety, increased tolerance for paincomplex, challenging, autonomous jobs enhance peoples perceptions of self efficacy, boring tedious jobs do the oppositecan be nurturedlearned helplessness-debilitating lack of faith in one’s ability to control ones environment (low self efficacy)need lots of constructive pointers and positive feedbackgoal difficulty needs to match individuals perceived self efficacycan be made more challenging as performance improvessmall successes need to be rewarded
11:Managing Individual Difference & Behavior20:40self esteem-extent to which people like or dislike themselves, their overall self evaluationhigh self esteem-more apt to handle failure better, emphasize the positive, take more risks, choose more unconventional jobswhen faced with pressure situations, become egotistical and boastful, some with aggressive/violent behaviorlow self esteem-when confronted with failure, focus on weaknesses, negative thoughts