The performed ultrasonic test gave us good estimation

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The performed ultrasonic test gave us good estimation of the strength of the hardened concrete samples. It is clear that the velocity of waves decreases severely by the existence of cracks, and so does the strength of concrete as shown. 1. Surface finish of the concrete: good finish causes a full contact between the transducers and the surface, resulting in an increase in the velocity. 2. Presence of reinforcing steel, because the velocity of pulses in a steel bar is generally higher than they are in concrete. The influence of the reinforcement is generally very small if the bars run in a direction at right angles to the pulse path and the quantity of steel is small in relation to the path length. Also when we made the test we placed the device by using the indirect or surface transmission to make the sound waves in perpendicular to the reinforcing to avoid the influence of the steel as far as possible. 3. The moisture content of concrete can have a small but significant influence on the pulse velocity. In general, the velocity is increased with increased moisture content, the influence being more marked for lower quality concrete. 4. Age of concrete: an increase in the age causes an increase in the density of hardened concrete. 5. Temperature of the concrete may effect on the sound wave velocity. 10
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6. References: Popovics, Sandor.1921: Fundemantals of Portland cement concrete. Canada: A Wiley- Interscince publication; 477p. Mustafa Abedmousa. 2008-2009. Concrete Laboratory Manual (1st edition). Civil Engineering Department. Birzeit University. 150p. Concrete Technology " A.M.Nevill & J.J.Brooks Concrete laboratory manual, pages 100-106 and 119-120 11
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