Some bones have an exact match and are called paired bones. As an example, the temporal bones that make up the sides of the skull are paired bones. A bone that does not have a match is called an unpaired bone. Bones can articulate (connect) with other bones. As an example, the two bones of the forearm, the ulna and radius, connect to the humerus, another bone of the arm. Therefore, the ulna and radius articulate with the humerus.
5Bones are classified according to their shape as long, short, flat, irregular, and sesamoid. Long bones oLonger than they are wide oHave a shaft (diaphysis) and two ends (epiphysis) oIncludes: clavicle, humerus, radius, ulna, femur, tibia, fibula, metacarpals and phalanges oFemur is the longest bone in the body Short bones oApproximately equal in length, width, and thickness; somewhat cuboid shaped oFound only in the carpals (wrist) and tarsals (ankle) Flat bonesoThin and curved oIncludes the ribs, sternum, scapulae, and bones in the vault of the skullIrregular bones oMixed/complex shapes oIncludes bones of the skull, vertebrae, and coccyx (tailbone) Sesamoid bones oSmall and round oEmbedded in tendons oFound in the neck, knee (patella), hand, foot, and wrist The following graphic identifies the location of the types of bones in the body.
6JOINTSJoints are the sites of junction or union between two or more bones. Joints can be classified based on their structural or functional features. Structural Classifications of JointsJoints can be classified into fibrous, cartilaginous, and synovial types based on their structural features. Fibrous Joints Also called synarthroses Barely movable or fixed Found in these formsoSutures: connected by fibrous connective tissue and are found between the flat bones of the skulloSyndesmosis: connected by fibrous connective tissue and occur as the inferior tibiofibular and tympanostapedial syndesmosisCartilaginous Joints Synchondroses (primary cartilaginous joints) oAre united by hyaline cartilage and permit no movement but allow growth in the length of the bone oIncludes the epiphyseal cartilage plates (the union between the epiphysis and the diaphysis of a growing bone) and spheno-occipital and manubriosternal synchondroses Symphyses (secondary cartilaginous joints) oAre joined by plate of fibrocartilage and are slightly movable oInclude the pubic symphysis and the intervertebral disks Synovial Joints Also called diarthrodial joints Contain synovial fluid Permit a great degree of free movementAre characterized by joint cavity, articular cartilage, synovial membrane (which produces synovial fluid), and articular capsuleClassified according to axes of movement into plane, hinge, pivot, ellipsoidal, saddle, and ball and socket jointsFunctional Classifications of Joints Joints can be classified into plane, hinge, pivot, ellipsoidal, saddle, and ball/socket based on the type and degree of movement.
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