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Rogers’ Personality TheoryThe self is the humanistic term for who we really are as a person. The self is ourinner personality, and can be likened to the soul, or Freud's psyche. The self isinfluenced by the experiences a person has in their life, and out interpretations of thoseexperiences. Two primary sources that influence our self-concept are childhoodexperiences and evaluation by others.According to Rogers (1959), we want to feel experience and behave in wayswhich are consistent with our self-image and which reflect what we would like to be like,our ideal-self. A person is said to be in a state of incongruence if some of the totality oftheir experience is unacceptable to them and is denied or distorted in the self-image.The humanistic approach states that the self is composed of concepts unique tous. The self-concept includes three components:Self-esteem- What we think about ourselves. Rogers believed feelings of self-worthdeveloped in early childhood and were formed from the interaction of the child with themother and father.Self-imagehow we see ourselves, which is important to good psychological health.Self-image includes the influence of our body image on inner personality. At a simplelevel, we might perceive ourselves as a good or bad person, beautiful or ugly. Self-image has an effect on how a person thinks, feels, and behaves in the world.8
Ideal selfthe person who we would like to be. It consists of our goals and ambitions inlife, and is dynamic – i.e. forever changing. The ideal self in childhood is not the idealself in our teens or late twenties etc.There are four major factors that influence self-esteem according to Argyle (2008), hebelieves that there were four major factors that influence the self-esteem of a person,and the four factors are:The Reaction of OthersIf people admire us, flatter us, seek out our company, listenattentively and agree with us we tend to develop a positive self-image. If they avoid us,neglect us; tell us things about ourselves that we don’t want to hear we develop anegative self-image.Comparison with OthersIf the people we compare ourselves with (our referencegroup) appear to be more successful, happier, richer, better looking than ourselves wetend to develop a negative self-image BUT if they are less successful than us our imagewill be positive.Social RolesSome social roles carry prestige e.g. doctor, airline pilot, TV. Presenter,premiership footballer and this promotes self-esteem. Other roles carry stigma. E.g.prisoner, mental hospital patient, refuses collector or unemployed person.IdentificationRoles aren’t just “out there.” They also become part of our personality i.e.we identity with the positions we occupy, the roles we play and the groups we belong to.