The following are the assumptions of Madeleine
Different cultures perceive, know, and practice care
in different ways, yet there are some commonalities
about care among all cultures of the world.
Values, beliefs, and practices for culturally related
care are shaped by, and often embedded in, “the
worldview, language, religious (or spiritual), kinship
(social), political (or legal), educational, economic,
technological, ethnohistorical, and environmental
context of the culture.
While human care is universal across cultures, caring
may be demonstrated through diverse expressions,
actions, patterns, lifestyles, and meanings.
Cultural care is the broadest holistic means to know,
explain, interpret, and predict nursing care phenomena
to guide nursing care practices.
All cultures have generic or folk health care
practices, that professional practices vary across
cultures, and that in any culture there will be cultural
similarities and differences between the care-receivers
(generic) and the professional caregivers.
Leininger has developed the Sunrise Model in a
logical order to demonstrate the interrelationships of the
concepts in her theory of Culture Care Diversity and