B Critically examine any five 5 reasons for educational managers reluctance

B critically examine any five 5 reasons for

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B. Critically examine any five (5) reasons for educational managers’ reluctance to delegate responsibilities to their subordinates. 2. Critically examine any five (5) reasons why some basic education teachers in Ghana feel reluctant to accept responsibilities delegated to them by their superiors.
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36 CHAPTER 5: CONFLICT AND CONFLICT MANAGEMENT IN EDUCATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS What is a conflict? Conflict is a state of discord caused by the actual or perceived opposition of needs, values and interests between people working together. It is a natural disagreement resulting from individuals or groups that differ in attitudes, beliefs, values or needs. It can also be defined as the process that begins when an individual or a group’s feelings negatively affect another individual or group. It is a natural event that occurs on daily basis, especially in educational organizations. Jones (2006) notes that conflict in itself need not be a problem; it is the hostility that is usually seen as the harmful aspect of conflict. Forms of Conflicts in Educational Organizations Many writers in the field of educational leadership and management highlight various forms of conflicts. Jones (2006) points out that conflicts in educational setting take the following forms: Goal conflict: W hen one person or one group of people seeks a different outcome from others. Cognitive conflict: W hen a person a group holds ideas that conflict with those held by other. Affective conflict: When one person’s or group’s emotions, feelings or attitudes are incompatible with others. Behavioural conflict: W here one person or group behaves in a way that others find unacceptable. Causes of Conflicts in Educational Organizations In educational organizations, conflicts are caused by many factors and a few of them are discussed below. Resources: Competing for limited resources in an organization can lead to
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37 conflicts between or among staff members. Resources could be material, intellectual, economic, and many others. To address this form of conflict, it is important for a formula for sharing resources to be devised in such a way that it answers the concerns of the parties involved in the conflict. Information: New information which challenges old ideas, contradictory information (when people are not sure what to believe), misinformation (when people are not certain about information) as well as incomplete information (when information partially answers people’s concerns) could lead to conflicts in educational organizations. Jones (2006) also points out that the causes of conflicts in educational organizations include the following: Specific Problems or issues : These can be both simple and complex in nature: At their simplest, they are merely misunderstandings that can be corrected very easily. At their more complex, they could stem from deeply held views which a team member may be unprepared to concede ground.
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