B. Critically examine any five (5) reasons for educational managers’ reluctance todelegate responsibilities to their subordinates.2. Critically examine any five (5) reasons why some basic education teachers inGhana feel reluctant to accept responsibilities delegated to them by their superiors.
36CHAPTER 5: CONFLICT AND CONFLICT MANAGEMENT IN EDUCATIONALORGANIZATIONSWhat is a conflict?Conflictis a state of discord caused by the actual or perceived opposition of needs,values and interests between people working together. It is a natural disagreementresulting from individuals or groups that differ in attitudes, beliefs, values or needs. Itcan also be defined as the process that begins when an individual or a group’s feelingsnegatively affect another individual or group. It is a natural event that occurs on dailybasis, especially in educational organizations. Jones (2006) notes that conflict in itselfneed not be a problem; it is the hostility that is usually seen as the harmful aspect ofconflict.Forms of Conflicts in Educational OrganizationsMany writers in the field of educational leadership and management highlight variousforms of conflicts. Jones (2006) points out that conflicts in educational setting take thefollowing forms:Goal conflict: When one person or one group of people seeks a different✓outcome from others.Cognitive conflict: When a person a group holds ideas that conflict with those✓held by other.Affectiveconflict: When one person’s or group’s emotions, feelings or attitudes✓are incompatible with others.Behavioural conflict: Where one person or group behaves in a way that others✓find unacceptable. Causes of Conflicts in Educational OrganizationsIn educational organizations, conflicts are caused by many factors and a few ofthem are discussed below.Resources: Competing for limited resources in an organization can lead to✓
37conflicts between or among staff members. Resources could be material,intellectual, economic, and many others. To address this form of conflict, it isimportant for a formula for sharing resources to be devised in such a way that itanswers the concerns of the parties involved in the conflict. Information: New information which challenges old ideas, contradictory✓information (when people are not sure what to believe), misinformation (whenpeople are not certain about information) as well as incomplete information(when information partially answers people’s concerns) could lead to conflicts ineducational organizations.Jones (2006) also points out that the causes of conflicts in educational organizationsinclude the following:Specific Problems or issues: These can be both simple and complex in nature:✓At their simplest, they are merely misunderstandings that can be corrected veryeasily. At their more complex, they could stem from deeply held views which ateam member may be unprepared to concede ground.