time of not being married — having a child in co-habitat environment is a stressor ○ people who co-habitat before marriage have a greater risk of divorce and the longer you co-habitate without getting married makes the risk go higher
● step-parent shouldn’t be the person of authority or the disciplinarian — they should be someone who kids can confide in [this is the case if the child is older when the stepparent comes into play] ● avg. age of getting married = 28 ● 15% of people who have never married ● 1950 — 5% of pop that never married ● now not getting married is considered to be a choice ● values have changed — going back in time, the value of marriage and gender roles were different. now it's different — now we consider happiness in a marriage to be a value. in the 50s, if you weren’t happy, it didn’t matter much ● divorce = has a concussion but separation doesn’t ● marriage = good for mental health ● married people compared to non-married have better mental health ● divorce can be harmful to students/children ● conflict in marriage is worse for students ● benefits of marriage ○ economic benefit ○ behavior of married ppl affects their health — married ppl take less risks than unmarried ppl ○ less substance abuse among married people than non married ppl ○ more health promoting behavior — exercising, doctor appointments ● according to research, if you had a previous divorce that shouldn’t affect future marriage ○ however, it can affect future if old divorce is still fresh and there are still conflicts — this affects children and their marriage future as well ○ separation ppl have higher rates of suicide than married ppl ○ separation is more harmful for mental health than divorce ○ some people are separated for many years and never actually divorce ● breakup is bad for both sexes ● social class is a strong indicator when you study ethnicity — especially about african americans RACE Re Mental Disorder and Race Cultural literacy: Bilingual (asset) We must know what “rates” represent. Without looking at social class you do not see the whole picture. Without knowing which social class they represent it is hard to statistically show racial inequalities. Gender makes a big difference as well. Be wary of the distinctions. When it comes to mental health (not a lot of mental health differences between white and blacks) Compare social class to race (social class is the bigger determinant)
Life experience has a major effect (higher CD, Diabetes, Lupus in AA people) – What are they related to? (Low Socioeconomic group) Social condition which makes a certain group more vulnerable to health disparities Due to racism and discrimination Even though there are differences in stressor -> why are there not many differences in outcome (Why?) Poverty has correlation with mental health Resilience= strong support systems in AA populations (primarily from families) Cost of caring (Strong family support, however sometimes this can be a challenge) Buffers that help with the challenge = religiosity Strong support system- Religiosity very strong buffer for social stressors Fatalism (hold people back)
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