Will reverse machine code into assembly n macros can

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will reverse machine code into assembly n MACRO’s can be used to represent several functions in assembly n High level languages – English like statements, C, Java, Pascal FORTAN, BASIC n High level code is compiled in compiler or interpreter into machine code n Compiler – FORTAN, C, Java n Interpreter – Java, BASIC Generation Language (GL) 1GL (machine), 2GL (assembly), 3-5 GL (High level) n 1 GL – machine language: Assembler – translates from assembly language to machine language. n 2 GL – assembly language: Disassembler – translates machine language to assembly. n 3 GL – Fortran, BASIC, C languages: Compiler – translates high-level language to machine code. n 4 GL – NATURAL, FOCUS, and database query languages: Decompiler – translates machine language into high-level language. n 5GL – Prolog, LISP and other Artificial Intelligence languages: Interpreter – translates high-level language one command at time to machine code. Operating System (OS) – program or set of programs that controls the resources and operations of the computer Controller - OS communicates with I/O through controller (i.e. disk controller) Open systems – published specifications, subject to open review and evaluation, vulnerabilities exposed during review.
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Closed systems – vendor proprietary usually not compatible with other systems, no open review, may have unexposed vulnerabilities Distributed Computing Migration from central computing to the client server model, including desktops. Major concerns: n Desktops can contain sensitive information but are at risk n Users lack general security awareness n Desktop can provide an avenue of access into other critical systems n Modems can make the network vulnerable n Downloading data from the Internet increases risk of infection with malicious code n Desktop may not be physically secure n Lack of backups on desktop Security Mechanisms n E-mail and download policies n Robust Access control, including biometrics at the desktop n GUI access to restrict access to critical information n File encryption n Separation of the processes that run in privileged mode n Protection of domains n Protection of sensitive disks with physical security n Distinct labeling according tom classification n Centralized backup of desktop files n Regular security awareness training n Control of software installed on desktops n Encryption and hash totals for use in sending information n Logging of transactions and transmissions n Application of other physical, logical and administrative access controls n DBMS systems that restrict access to data n Protection against environmental damage n Formal change management and development and implementations n Desktops included in DR and BCP plans Protection Mechanisms n Protection Domain - Execution of memory space assigned to each process n Protects from unauthorized modification and executional interference n Trusted Computing Base – Total Combination of protection mechanisms n Hardware n Software n Firmware n Security perimeter
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