12 change is inevitable change from simple to complex

This preview shows page 21 - 23 out of 68 pages.

12Change is inevitableChange from simple to complexChange through definite stageProgress is concomitant of evolution (Spybey, 1992)Auguste Comte (1865) developed the ideas of evolution through definite stages. Heidentified three stages of evaluation known as “Law of three stages”(p.7). It statesthat religion has changed from one evolutionary phase to another because of thechanges in human thought and intelligence. Three stages are: theological stage,metaphysical stage and positive stage.The Theological stage:In theological phase which continued through the MiddleAges, people believed that all things are caused by supernatural beings.Comte brokethis stage into 3 sub-stages: fetishism, polytheism and monotheism. In fetishismprimitive people believed in inanimate objects. In polytheism primitive people believedthat all natural forces are controlled by different Gods. Monotheism means believing inone God or God in one; attributing all to a single, supreme deity. In this stage primitivepeople believe a single theistic entity is responsible for the existence of the universe.The Metaphysical stage:The second stage, the metaphysical stage, is merely amodification of the first because a supernatural cause is replaced by an “abstractentity”,it is meant to be a transitional stage, where there is the belief that abstract forcescontrol the behavior of human beings. Because it is a transitional stage between thetheological stage and the positive stage, Comte deemed it the least important of thethree stages and was only necessary because the human mind cannot make the jumpfrom the theological to the positive stage on its own.The Positive stage:The positive stage also known as the scientific stage, refers toscientific explanation based on observation, experiment, and comparison. Today peopleattempt to establish cause and effect relationships. Positivism is a purely intellectualway of looking at the world; as well, it emphasizes observation and classification ofdata and facts. This is the highest, most evolved behavior according to Comte.HerbertSpencer’s (2004) theory of evolutionary change is slightly different fromtheories of change of Comte. It speaks that every society does not evolve through the
13same fixed stages of development. He identified two types of society; the militantsociety and the industrial society. By this theory it can be correlated that today’s religionchanged from militant society to modern industrial society. Militant society wasstructured around relationships of hierarchy, obedience, simple, and more religious andundifferentiated; whereas modern industrial society is voluntary, contractually assumedsocial obligations, complex, more secular and differentiated. Society, which Spencerconceptualized as a ‘social organism’ evolved from the simpler state to the morecomplex according to the universal law of evolution (McKinnon, 2010).

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

End of preview. Want to read all 68 pages?

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

Term
Fall
Professor
professor_unknown
Tags
Sociology, Auguste Comte, Khulna University

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture