The second world war proved far more catastrophic

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Mathematics: A Practical Odyssey
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Chapter 10 / Exercise 52
Mathematics: A Practical Odyssey
Johnson/Mowry
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The Second World War proved far more catastrophic than the First World War. In this war, not only the militaryforces but also the civilian population of Great Britain were involved. The Germans attacked Britain andbombed London. By the end of the war in September 1945, England had suffered the loss of hundreds of37
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Mathematics: A Practical Odyssey
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Chapter 10 / Exercise 52
Mathematics: A Practical Odyssey
Johnson/Mowry
Expert Verified
thousands of people and the devastation of wide urban areas in London. National economic system andfinancial resources were badly affected.7. The General Strikes of the British Workers (1926; 1962; 1972)The general strikes in Great Britain revealed the seriousness of the class struggle of the British workers againstthe capitalist monopoly in this country.The General Strike broke out in Britain in 1926. In 1962, the British railway workers went out on strike forhigher pay. The increase in price and inflation which seriously affected the life of the working people led to thenation-wide strikes in 1972.These strikes represented the maturity and the solidarity of the British workers in their economic and politicalstruggles against the state monopoly.In general, Great Britain in this century lost her domination of the past. In the main political problems of theworld, she participated as one of the most active partners of the United States, who has become much strongerand taken over the leading role of the capitalist world.II. Literature1. The Transition from the Victorian AgeThe Victorian age lost itself in the sands ten or fifteen years before the close of the 19thcentury. The Victorianage had been a time of optimism, the basis of which was England’s material prosperity. The British flag hadfollowed her trade and forces to every corner of the world, and a empire had been greatly enlarged. During thelast two decades of the century, the material prosperity began to be assailed by foreign competition; new socialforces came into play.A current of pessimism- arising partly from the discordance which existed between the teaching of the Bibleand the message of science, partly from the consciousness that the evils denounced by Carlyle and Ruskin- hasnot been adequately dealt with invaded literature. Thomas Hardy(1840-1928) was the most remarkableexponent of this literary pessimism. His ‘Wessex Novels’ (several of which were masterpieces of realisticdescription and psychological penetration) were dominated by the notion of a relentless fate, or more exactlyof uncompromising determinism. Men, in the novels of Thomas Hardy were slaves to their environments, totheir instincts, to their heredity; most of them were destined to live a life of utter misery, without any hope ofredemption during their brief transit through this sorrow world.Still more tragic was the note of despondency one heard in the verse of James Thomson(1834-1882), whosepoetry was that of 'sheer, overmastering, inexorable despair’. Thomson proclaimedThat every struggle brings defeatBecause Fate holds no prize to crown success;That all the oracles are dumb or cheatBecause they have no secret to express;38

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