2 months old – 3 days 3 months old – 7/8 days 6 months old – 21 days Training (the initial try -> learning) vs. Reactivation “reminder” experience – memory lasts longer when reactivated Learn remind good memory What about older children? (2 year olds +) - Processing efficiency (speed and number of bits of information we can handle) improves with age - Short term memory capacity increases with age - digit span / letter span / word span how many random numbers/letters/words/ etc would be remembered -processing speed increases with age (age 12 basically adult memory) - Easier to do mental math if you have knowledge of easier stuff experience is responsible for quick improvements and knowledge gain Why? Neural development (mylenation, synapses, etc) and experience Executive Processes -Strategies we implement when trying to think (help us think better, useful for new information or something difficult) 1 . Self monitoring : paying attention to what’s easy for you and what’s hard for you (age 4+) 2. Planning/strategizing : how would you approach a new type of problem, developing a plan is important to the process of cognitive development (hard to pick up on before age 4) 3. Self regulation : once you have monitored your performance, do things you should be doing, avoid things you shouldn’t be doing-implement plan (age 8-10) ** People who do well academically are good at the points above Developmental course of self-regulation ability : People who are better at self regulated, more liked, better jobs-social, emotional, and intellectual success How does it develop?: A not B task, the failure of this task is about the failure to inhibit a response (can’t stop yourself from reaching): if you really know its in B but can’t stop yourself from searching A, you have a self regulation problem
Luria’s tasks : tasks to measure response inhibition: “hand task”- tell kid whenever you make a fist, they need to make a fist. Then if I point my finger, you point your finger. CHANGE: if I make a fist, you point your finger. If I point my finger, you make a fist. Kids really mess up on this. (cant until age 4) Huge leap in performance between ages 4-7 Developmental course of self-monitoring ability : Cant before age 4 or 5 Developmental course of planning/strategizing ability Cuvo: task: earn money by remembering words Different words have different $$ value Ideally, try to remember higher value words to make more money 5 th graders – no strategy, don’t plan just memorize down the list 8 th graders – try to make a strategy uni kids – memorized the higher value words to make more money first! Memory Strategies 1. Rehearsal repeat, repeat, repeat Really young kids suck at repeating Takes 6-7 years to develop -DeLoach’s hidden toy task : hide toy from 2 year olds somewhere really easy -tell them they’ll have to look for the toy in 4mins but meanwhile can play around with other toys -at the 4 minute mark they can’t remember where the toy was
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- Summer '16
- Intelligence quotient, Theory of cognitive development, Object permanence