patients of snake bite 1892 Kaufmann demonstrated reproduced successfully the

Patients of snake bite 1892 kaufmann demonstrated

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patients of snake bite 1892: Kaufmann demonstrated & reproduced successfully the findings of Fornora and Sewall by immunizing dog with sub-lethal doses of Vipera aspis venom
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Neeraj Paliwal Snake Antivenin There has not been any significant change made in the process which was used by Albert Calmette in 1894 Typically it involves snake venom collection, immunization of horse, collection of blood and separation of serum or immunoglobulins In olden days serum was preferred, however, nowadays, plasma is of choice as erythrocytes are re-injected into donor (horse) to prevent anaemia “antivenom immunoglobulins” Caution: Due to complex and variable nature of snake venom appropriate snake species selection and utilization is mandatory to make effective snake antivenin Geographical region of ultimate use must be kept into account before selecting the snake species for preparing the snake antivenin
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Neeraj Paliwal Snake Antivenin – continue Process: Snakes are quarantined for 2 months Examined for health, infections or parasite presence Treated if required and quarantined for another 2 months after full clinical recovery, if antibiotics are given the snake can not be milked for 4 weeks after full recovery Once snake is ready, venom is collected by milking process Venom is either freeze dried, lyophilized or refrigerated as soon as possible to avoid proteolytic degradation
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Neeraj Paliwal Snake Antivenin – continue Freund’s Complete Adjuvant (FCA), Freund’s Incomplete Adjuvant (FIA) and ammonium salts are added in Venom and aliquots are prepared Venom aliquots are injected subcutaneously in small quantities (50 - 200 µl) to animal for multiple times till satisfactory antibody titre is achieved (takes ~12 months) Usually horse, sheep, donkey, goat and rabbit are used for immunization purpose Blood is collected from jugular vein (13 – 15 ml blood per kg of body weight) (3 – 5 litres in case of horse) in anticoagulant containing glass bottles or plastic bags
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Neeraj Paliwal Snake Antivenin – continue Collected blood is passed through cell separator and RBCs are re- injected to animal Plasma is purified for obtaining immunoglobulins by ammonium sulphate precipitation method or Caprylic acid precipitation method After ultra-purifying, isotonicity is maintained and preservatives are added (final pH 7.0 ±0.5) Final product would comprise any one of the following Intact IgG molecules F(ab') 2 fragments Fab fragments
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Neeraj Paliwal Snake Antivenin – continue Digested fragments
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Neeraj Paliwal Scorpion Antivenom There are around 2,000 different species of scorpions across the globe out of which about 30-50 possess strong enough poison to kill a person Found in 6 continents on earth Hottentotta tamulus (Indian Red Scorpion), Androctonus australis (Yellow Fat-tailed Scorpion) & Leiurus quinquestraitus (Death Stalker/Yellow Scorpion) are considered as the deadliest scorpions which are also used for the antivenom production widely Androctonus australis Leiurus quinquestraitus Hottentotta tamulus
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  • MrRosdi
  • passive immunity, blood plasma, Neeraj Paliwal

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