A popular saying became the sun never sets on the

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A popular saying became “the sun never sets on the British Empire” One consequence of this is that the English language would spread worldwide, and is today the most widely spoken international language
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At one point, Britain controlled about half of the world
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II. MOVING INTO THE MODERN AGE Great Britain played a role in shaping our modern world in 2 ways: 1) developed representative government 2) Industrial Revolution A) Representative Government Britain’s government is a constitutional monarchy represented by a parliament a representative lawmaking body whose members are elected or appointed Over the centuries, English monarchs lost power to the English Parliament, so a representative government evolved, starting as early as 1215 when English nobles forced the king to sign the Magna Carta a document that inspired such ideas as trial by jury and no taxation without representation These ideas would later spread to the United States as well as other former British colonies, and later to many other areas of the world Most other Northern European countries today also have constitutional monarchies with Parliaments similar to Great Britain
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II. MOVING INTO THE MODERN AGE (continued…) B) Industrial Revolution Deposits of coal and iron ore also helped make Britain the first country to industrialize in the late 1700s Industry used coal as fuel and iron to make machinery The industrial revolution would spread from Britain to the United States and other western and northern European countries in the 1800s, and to most of the rest of the world during the 1900s C) Since 1900 In the 20 th century, most northern European countries did not involve themselves in other nations’ affairs ( they stayed neutral ) The exception was Great Britain, who played a major role in both world wars After WWII, most of the British Empire underwent major change as nearly all of its colonies gained independence Some countries, even though independent, still remain part of the British Commonwealth, maintaining close ties to their former colonizers
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II. MOVING INTO THE MODERN AGE (continued…) D) The Irish Question The mostly Protestant British strengthened their hold on Catholic Ireland in the 1800s, seizing Irish land and giving it to Scottish and English Protestants This left many Irish in poverty, and in the 1840s, potato crops failed and caused famine Over 1 million Irish left and fled to other countries, mainly the United States Many Irish called for independence and in 1921, Britain divided Ireland into 2 parts The Republic of Ireland gained independence while Northern Ireland remained part of the United Kingdom Since then, ethnic and religious conflict and violence have caused problems in Northern Ireland, with many Protestants wanting to remain with the United Kingdom (”Loyalists”), while many Catholics want to break away and reunite with Ireland (“Nationalists”)
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III. ECONOMICS: DIVERSITY AND CHANGE Today, northern Europe has a highly developed economy A) Industry and Resources
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  • Northern Europe, Bulgaria,  I. PENINSULAS

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